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All Biology Study Notes

All Biology Notes A-Z


A Worm Under a Microscope

Abiotic Factors - Definition, Types, Importance, Examples

Acetamide utilization Test - Principle, Procedure, result

Acetate Utilization Test - Principle, Procedure, Results

Acetic Acid Production

Acid Fast Stain - Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Result

Acridine Orange Staining

Active Immunity - Definition, Characteristics, Types, Examples

Active Immunization - Definition, Mechanism, Advantages, Disadvantages, Examples

Active Site For Enzymes - Definition, Features, Mechanism, Example

Active Transport - Definition, Types, Process, Functions, Examples

Adaptive (Acquired) Immunity

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) - Structure, Synthesis, Functions

Afferent vs Efferent Neuron - Differences between Afferent and Efferent Neuron

Affinity chromatography - Principle, Types, Steps, Applications

Agarose Gel Electrophoresis Definition, Principle, Procedure, Applications

Ageing - Definition, Theories, and models

Agglutination Reaction - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Applications

Agglutination Test - definition, Types, Uses, Advantages, Disadvantages

Agnatha - Characteristics, Classification, Morphology, Reproduction

Agrobacterium-Mediated Gene Transfer - Mechanism, Applications, Advantages

Agrochemical - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Measurement

Air Displacement Pipetting - Principle, Procedure, Applications

Air microbiology and Dispersal of Microbes 

Albert Stain - Principle, Procedure, Result

Alcohol Burner - Definition, Principle, Parts, Uses

Alcohol Fermentation in Laboratory

Algae - Algae Reproduction

Algae Bioreactor - Definition, Types, Feature, Uses

Algae Under Microscope

Alkaline Peptone Water - Preparation, Composition, Principle, Application.

Alkaline Phosphatase Test of Milk - Determination of Phosphatase Activity of Milk

Alternaria alternata - Habitat, Life Cycle, Morphology, Pathogenesis

Alternative Pathway of Complement System

Altitudinal Zonation - Definition, Factors, Importance, Examples

Altruism among Animals - Definition and Evolution

Amensalism - Definition, Types, Examples

Ames Test - Principle, Procedure, Result, Limitation, Applications

Amies Transport Medium - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Amino Acid Formula

Amino Acids - Physical Properties, Structure, Classification, Functions

Amniocentesis (Amniotic Fluid Test) - Principle, Procedure, Result

Amoeba Cell - Labeled Structure, Characteristics, Movement, Nutrition, Reproduction, Disease, Habitat.

Amoeba Staining - Fixing, Techniques

Amoeba Under The Microscope

Amoebiasis, Entamoeba Histolytica, Life cycle, Diagnosis

An Overview of Bacillus cereus

Anabaena - Definition, Structure, Reproduction, Importance

Anabaena Under Microscope

Anabolism - Definition, Stages, Functions, Regulation, Examples

Anabolism vs Catabolism - Differences Between Anabolism and Catabolism

Anaerobic Blood Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Anaerobic Culture Media - Examples, Definition

Analytical Balance - Diagram, Principle, Parts, Types, Uses

Anatomical and Physiological Barriers of Immune System

Ancylostoma duodenale - Structure, Life Cycle, Habitat, Characteristics

Anesthetic (MS222) Solution Preparation

Animal Cell - Labeled Diagram, Structure, Types, Functions

Animal Cell Culture - Types, Application, Advantages and disadvantages.

Animal Models for Autoimmune Diseases

Anion Exchange Chromatography - Principle, Protocol, Applications

Anomer - Definition, Mechanism, Properties

Anomer of Glucose

Antibiotic Resistance - Definition, Mechanism, Example.

Antibiotics definition, Characteristics, Classification, Administration

Antibody - Structure, Types, Functions and Properties

Anticodon - Definition, Principle, Functions, Examples

Antifungal Drug - Mode of Action

Antigen - Definition, Types, Structure, Detection, Properties

Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs)

Antigen Processing and Presentation - Cytosolic Pathway and Endocytic Pathway 

Antigen Processing, and Presentation - MHC Class I, Class II,

Antigen-Antibody Interaction Reaction - Definition, Types, Examples, Properties

Antimicrobial Agent and Chemotherapy

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST)

Antiviral Chemotherapy

Antiviral Drug - Mode of Action

API (Analytical Profile Index) 20E Test Result, Principle, Procedure

Apoptosis Pathway- Definition, Functions, Mechanism, Examples

Apoptosis vs. Necrosis - Definition, Types, Causes

Applications of Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Aquatic Ecosystem - Definition, Types, Examples

Arabinose Operon - Definition, Structure, Mechanism 

Archaea - Definition, Habitat, Characteristics, Importance, Examples

Archaea vs Bacteria - Definition, Difference, Examples

Archaea vs Bacteria vs Eukarya - 30 Differences, Definition, Examples

Archaebacteria - Definition, Types, Characteristics, Structure, Examples

Archaeopteryx A connecting link Between Reptiles and Birds (Aves)

Are Viruses Living or Non-Living?

Arneth Count for Neutrophils - Principle, Procedure.

Ascaris lumbricoides - Structure, Reproduction, Life Cycle, Characteristics

Asexual Reproduction in bacteria - Definition, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages

Asexual Reproduction in Plants - Definition, Methods

Ashdown’s Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Aspergillosis - Causative Agent, Symptoms, Types, Treatment

Aspergillus clavatus - Morphology, Life Cycle, Pathogenesis

Aspergillus flavus - Definition, Structure, Characteristics, Habitat

Aspergillus fumigatus - Characteristics, Structure, Pathogenesis

Aspergillus niger - Structure, Habitat, Characteristics

Assisted Reproductive Technology - Techniques, Importance

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer

Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) - Definition, Principle, Application

Auramine-Rhodamine Staining - Principle, Procedure, Result, Applications

Autoclave - Definition, Principle, Parts, Operating Procedure, Uses

Autoclave Bag - Application, Types, Applications, Advantages

Autoimmune Disease - Definition, Types, Diagnosis, Treatment, Examples

Autoimmunity - Definition, Types, Tolerance, Pathogenesis, Mechanisms

Automated Cell Counter - Principle, Types, and Applications

Autonomic nervous system - Definition, Structure, Functions

Autotrophs - Definition, Types, Importance, Examples

Aves - Definition, Characteristics, Classification


B cell or B lymphocytes - Definition, Function, Types

Bacitracin Susceptibility Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Bacterial Capsule - Definition, Functions, Composition, Types, Demonstration, and examples.

Bacterial cell wall structure and Composition.

Bacterial Conjugation - Definition, Steps, Methods

Bacterial Culture Media Classification, Ingredients, Functions and Preparation.

Bacterial Culture Technique

Bacterial Flagella Staining by Leifson Flagella Stain Method

Bacterial Food Poisoning - Symptoms, Prevention, Causes & Treatment.

Bacterial Growth and Different Environmental Factors Affect Bacterial Growth

Bacterial Growth Curve - Definition, Phases, Calculations, Factors, Importance

Bacterial Growth Curve Protocol

Bacterial Secretion Systems - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Importance

Bacterial Smear Preparation

Bacterial toxin: Definition, Types, Example.

Bacterial Transduction - Generalized and Specialized Transduction

Bacterial Transformation - Definition, Principle, Steps, Examples

Bacterial Transformation Protocol

Bacteriological Examination of Waters by Using Membrane Filtration Method

Bacteriophages - Definition, Morphology, Life cycle, Significance

Baird Parker Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Baltimore Classification System of Viruses

Basidiomycetes - Life cycle, Characteristics, Significance, Mycelium and Examples

Basophil - Definition, Mechanism, Structure, Functions

Bath Solution (Ca2+/Mg2+ Free) Preparation

BCYE Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Bead Homogenizer | Bead Mill Homogenizers - Principle, Uses

Beaker - Definition, Types, Features, and Applications

Beer Production

Beer-Lambert Law - Definition, Derivation, and Limitations

Bench Top Centrifuge - Principle, Types, Parts, Uses

Benedict’s Test - Principle, Reagent Preparation, Procedure, Result, Limitation

Best and Top Books for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

Best and Top Books for Microbial Genetics and Molecular Biology

Best Book for BHU PET Applied Microbiology

Best books for CSIR NET Life Science

Best Books for Industrial and Food Microbiology

Best Books for Medical Microbiology and Immunology

Best Books For Microbial Metabolism

Best Books for Microbiology B.Sc 2nd Semester and Biochemistry

Best Books for Soil and Environmental Microbiology

Best Microbiology Books For B.Sc 1st Year Students and Bacteriology

Beta (β) Lactamase Test - Principle, Procedure, Results

Beta-oxidation of Fatty Acid - Definition, Steps, Importance

Bial test for pentoses Principle, Objective, Procedure, Result

Bile Esculin Agar (BEA) - Principle, Composition, Preparation, Results, Uses

Bile Esculin Test Principle, Procedure, Result, and application.

Bile Solubility Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Binary fission - Definition, Types, Steps, Examples

Binomial Nomenclature - Definition, Rules, Examples, Advantages, Disadvantages

Bioaccumulation - Definition, Mechanisms, Applications

Bioaerosol - Definition, Types, Collection, Transmission

Biochemical Test of Providencia stuartii

Biodegradation - Definition, Steps, Factors, Applications

Biodiversity - Definition, Types, Importance, Conservation

Biogeny (Formation of Primitive Life)

Biogeochemical Cycle - Definition, Importance, Examples

Bioinformatics - Definition, Introduction, Purpose, Applications

Bioinformatics Databases, Software, and Tools

Biological Clocks - Circadian rhythms, Tidal rhythms, Lunar rhythms, Jet lag, Entrainment

Biological Consequences of Complement Activation

Biological Magnification -Definition, Causes, Effects

Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) - Definition, Importance, Measurement

Bioprocess Engineering - Definition, Types, Uses

Bioreactor - Types, Design, Parts, Applications, Limitations

Bioremediation - Definition, Types, Application

Biosafety Cabinet - Definition, Classification (Class I, II, III), Working Mechanism, Application, Features.

Biosafety Guidelines - Biosafety guidelines and regulations

Biosafety levels With their Primary and Secondary Barriers.

Biotic Factors - Definition, Types, Examples

Biotic Factors of a Desert

Bird Seed Agar (Staibs Medium) - Composition, Principle, Preparation

Bismuth Sulphite Agar (BSA) - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Biuret Test For Protein Principle, Procedure, Result, Application.

BLAST - Definition, Types, Characteristics, Outputs, Applications

Blastomyces dermatitidis - Morphology, Transmission, Treatment

Blood Agar - Preparation, Composition, Application, and limitation

Blood Cells - Definition, Types, Structure and Functions

Blood Collection Tubes - Definition, Significance of Color Coding

Blood Cross Matching - Principle, Procedure, Result.

Blood Grouping Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Blood Pressure - Definition, Types, Measurement, Disorders

Blotting Technique - Definition, Types, Application

BOD Incubator - Definition, Principle, Components, Procedure, Application

BOD Test - Biological Oxygen Demand Test

Body Lines of Defense - Types, Examples

Bone - Definition, Structure, Types, Growth, Resorption, Bone Structure

Bone Marrow - Definition, Types, Structure and Functions

Botulism Food Poisoning by Clostridium botulinum

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)- Mad Cow Disease

Bradford Stock Solution Preparation

Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Branches of Microbiology

Brief History And Developments In Industrial Microbiology

Bright Field Microscope - Definition, Parts, Working Principle, Application

Brilliant Green Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Brucella Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Bryophytes - definition, classification, life cycle, characteristics, importance

BSC Microbiology Syllabus PDF - Choice Based Credit System (CBCS)

Budding - Definition, Process, Advantages, Disadvantages

Bunsen Burner - Definition, Principle, Parts, Functions

Burkholderia Cepacia Agar Base - Preparation, Composition, Principle

Butyrate Disk Test - Principle, Procedure, Result


Calcium Chloride Stock Solution Preparation

Calcofluor White Staining - Principle, Procedure, Results, Applications

CAMP Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Campylobacter Blood Agar (CVA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Campylobacter Infection and Food Poisoning - Campylobacteriosis

Canal System in Sponge - Definition, Types, Structures, Mechanisms, Functions and Examples

Cancer Immunotherapy 

Candida albicans - Morphology, Life Cycle, Pathogenesis, Treatment

Candida glabrata - Morphology, Pathogenesis, Treatment, Prevention

Candida parapsilosis - Morphology, Pathogenesis, Transmission, Treatment

Candida tropicalis - Morphology, Pathogenesis, Transmisssion, Treatment

Candidiasis - Definition, Causative Agent, Types, Transmission

Candidiasis - Types, Causative Agent, Treatment, Prevention, Symptoms

Capillary Electrophoresis - Definition, Principle, Types and Application

Capsule Staining - Procedure, Principle, Result

Carbenicillin Solution Preparation

Carbohydrate Fermentation Test - Sugar Fermentation Test

Carbohydrates - Definition, Examples, Structure, Types, and Functions

Carbohydrates - Definition, Structure, Types, Examples, Functions

Carbohydrates - Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides

Carbon cycle - Definition, Steps, Importance, Examples

Carbon Fixation - Process, Pathways, Importance

Career In Microbiology and Its Importance

Careers of Microbiologist: Scope, Salary, Jobs, Courses, Eligibility.

Carl Woese’s Classification - Three Domain Classification

Cartilage - Definition, Structure, Types, Functions

Cary Blair Transport Medium - Principle, Composition, Preparation, Uses, Results

Cas9 Protein - Structure, Types, Function

Casein Hydrolysis Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Catalase Test Principle, Procedure, Result and Application.

Cation Exchange Chromatography - Principle, Protocol, Uses

cDNA Cloning - Definition, Principle, Steps, Applications

cDNA library - Definition, Principle, Construction, Uses

cDNA Synthesis - Principle, Protocol 

Cell - Definition, Structure, Types, Functions, Examples

Cell Coat - Definition, Functions, Structure

Cell Cycle - Definition, Phases, Regulation

Cell Disruption - Definition, Methods, Application

Cell Fusion - Definition, Types, Significance

Cell Growth - Definition, Types, Mechanisms

Cell Mediated Immune Response 

Cell membrane (Plasma Membrane) Structures and Functions

Cell Membrane Staining Procedure, Principle, Result

Cell Organelles Structure and their Functions

Cell proliferation - Definition, Types, differentiation, assay, diseases

Cell Signaling - Definition, Types, Functions

Cell Structure and Functions - Cell Organelles

Cell Theory - Definition, History, Principles, Modern Theory, Examples

Cell Wall - Definition, Structure, Composition, Functions

Cell Wall Staining by Dayr's Method

Cell Wall Structure of Archaebacteria 

Cells of Immune System - Types and Examples

Cellular Junctions - Types and Functions

Cellular Respiration Equation, Types, Steps, and Importance

Cellular Structure of Algae with diagram

Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis - Definition, Principle, Operating Procedure, Uses

Central Dogma Theory of Molecular Biology and Genetic Code

Centrifugal Force - Definition, Principle, Formula, Calculation, Examples

Centrifugal Separators - Working Principle, Parts, Types, Uses

Centrifugation of blood - Blood Separation

Centrifuge - Definition, Principle, Parts, Types

Centrifuge Blood Sample - Purpose, Steps, Techniques

Centrifuge tube - Definition, Types, Applications, Sizes

Centrioles - Definition, Structure, Functions

Centrosome - Definition, Structure, Functions, Diagram

Cephalochordate - Characteristics, Classification

Cetrimide Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Cetrimide Test - Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Results

cGMP Pathway – Definition, Steps, Functions, Regulation

Channel Protein - Definition, Structure, Function, Example

Characteristic of Genetic Code

Characteristics of Muscle Twitch - Motor Unit, Summation and Tetanus

Characters of Algae | General Characters of Algae

Charcoal Selective Medium - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Chargaff’s Rules - First and Second Rule

Cheek Cells Under a Microscope

Chemical Method of Sterilization - Types, Mode of Action, Application, Examples.

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) - Definition, Measurement, Uses

Chemogeny or Chemical Evolution of Life

Chemosynthetic Bacteria - Examples, Definition, Pathways, and Processes

Chlamydia and Chlamydophila

Chlamydia Under the Microscope

Chloroplast - Definition, Characteristics, Structure, Location, Functions, and Diagram

Chloroquine solution Preparation and Uses

Chocolate Agar Media - Principle, Composition, Preparation, Result

Chondrichthyes - Characteristics, Classification & Examples

CHROMagar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Chromatography - Definition, Principle, Types, Applications

Chromoblastomycosis (Chromomycosis) - Morphology, Pathogenesis, Transmission, Treatment

Chromosome - Definition, Function, Structure, Types

Chromosome Abnormalities - Types, Mechanism, Detection

Chromosome Mapping - Definition, Types, Steps, Unit, Importance

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) 

Chytridiomycota Overview

Cilia - Definition, Structure, Types, Function

Cilia and Flagella - Definition, Structure, Function

Circulatory System in Vertebrates - Components, Structure, Functions

Circulatory System of Earthworm

Cis and Trans Isomers - Definition, Properties, Identification, Examples

Citric Acid Production

Classical Pathway of Complement Activation

Classification of Bacteria

Classification of Culture Media

Classification of Fungi: Gymnomycota, Mastigomycota, Amastigomycota.

Classification of Lipid

Classification of Protein On the Basis of Structure, Composition, Functions

Classification of Virus

Cleavage - Definition, Types, Planes, Patterns, Significance

CLED Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Climax Community - Definition, Characteristics, Theories

Cloning Vectors - Definition, Types, Features, Applications

Clostridium botulinum - Overview

Clostridium perfringens - Overview

Clostridium Perfringens Food Poisoning

Clostridium tetani - Overview

Clostridium Under Microscope

Coagulase Test - Principle, Procedure, Application, Result.

Coarse Adjustment and Fine Adjustment Knob of Microscope

Coccidioidomycosis - Definition, Life Cycle, Pathogenesis

COD Test - Test for Chemical Oxygen Demand In Wastewater

Coding Strand vs. Template Strand - Difference Between Template and Coding Strand

Codominance - Definition, Examples, Importance

Codon Chart and Codon Table

Cold-blooded vs Warm-blooded animals

Coliform Bacteria - Definition, Classification, Examples

Coliforms Presence/Absence (PA) Test

Collagen Hybridizing Peptide Staining

Colony Counter - Definition, Types, Parts, Principle

Colony Morphology of Bacteria and Examples

Color Spectrophotometer - Principle, Parts, Procedure, Applications

Colorimeter - Definition, Principle, Parts, Procedure, Applications

Colorimeter vs Spectrophotometer

Coltivirus - Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Columbia Blood Agar Base w/ Hemin - Composition, Preparation, Principle, Result, Uses

Columbia CNA Agar - Composition, Preparation, Uses, and Results

Column Chromatography - Procedure, Instruments, Application, Advantages

Commensalism - Definition, Types, Example

Common Fungal Culture Media and Their Uses

Common Glassware used in A Microbiology Laboratory

Community - Definition, Types, Characterisitcs, Importance

Community Characteristics - Dominance, Diversity, Species richness, Abundance, Stratification

Comparison Between Acid Fast and Non Acid Fast Bacteria

Comparison Between Gram Stain and Acid Fast

Comparison Between Kinyoun Stain vs Ziehl neelsen stain

Competition Interaction - Definition and Types with Examples

Competitive ELISA - Principle, Protocol, Applications

Complement Components - Definition, Functional categories

Complement Fixation Test - Principle, Types, Procedure, Results, Applications

Complement System - Definition, Activation, Effects, Regulation

Composting - Methods, Types, Factors, Importance

Compound Microscope - Principle, Parts, Diagram Definition, Application

Concept of Species - Definition, Types, Importance, Modes of speciation

Confocal Microscope Principle, Uses, Parts, Advantages, and Disadvantages.

Conical Flask (Erlenmeyer flask) -  Diagram, Definition, Types, Uses

Connective tissue - Structure, Location, Function and Classification

Consumers - Definition, Types, Examples

Contamination of Foods

Contamination of Foods

Contamination, Preservation, and Spoilage of Cereals and Cereal Products

Continuous Culture - Definition, Advantage, Application, Systems

Contribution of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

Contribution of Louis Pasteur in Microbiology.

Contribution of Microbiologist: Ignaz Semmelweis, Hans Christian Gram, Charles Lavaran, Fanny Hesse, Marjory Stephenson, Kiyoshi Shiga, Emil von Behring.

Contribution of Microbiologist: Selman Waksman, Julius Wagner-Jauregg, Charles Nicolle, Gerhard Domagk, Howard Florey, Ernst Chain, Max Theiler.

Contribution of Microbiologists: Joseph Lister, Alexander Fleming, Edward Jenner, Lazzaro Spallanzani, Martinus Beijerinck.

Contribution of Paul Ehrlich and John Snow In Microbiology

Contribution of Robert Koch and Koch’s Postulates

Control Group - Definition, Importance, Examples

Controlled Experiment - Definition, Process, Importance, Examples

Coomb’s Test - Direct and Indirect Coomb’s Test

Cori Cycle - Definition, Steps, Regulation, Importance

Coronavirus - Definition, Structure, Genome, Replication

Counter Current Immunoelectrophoresis - Principle, Procedure, Result.

Cranial Nerves in Mammals - Definition, Types, Structure, Functions

Cresol Red Solution Preparation and Uses

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus - An Overview

CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Editing - Definition, Mechanism, Application

Cryptococcus neoformans - Structure, Infection, Habitat

Cultivation of Anaerobic Bacteria

Cultivation of bacteria

Culture Media Examples, Components and Primary Purpose

Culture Media Preparation, Maintenance and Preservation

Culture Medium - Definition, Preparation, Classification

Cultures Production for Food Fermentations

Cyanobacteria - Definition, Characteristics, Structure, Functions, Examples

Cyclic AMP Pathway (Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate)

Cyclops - Habitat, Morphology, Diagram

Cysticercosis - Definition, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis

Cystine Glucose Blood Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Cystine Tryptic Agar - Composition, Preparation, Principle, Uses

Cytokinesis - Definition and Process In animal and Plant Cells

Cytoplasm - Functions, Structure, Definition, and Diagram

Cytoplasmic Matrix - Definition, Structure, Properties

Cytoskeleton - Definition, Structure, Functions 

Cytotoxic T cells - Development, Activation, Functions

Czapek’s Agar (CZA) - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses


Dark Field Microscopy - Principle, Parts, Procedure, Uses

Darwinism Theory - Definition & Examples

Daughter Cells - Definition, Formation, Importance, Examples

Decanter centrifuge - Principle, Types, Parts, Uses

Decarboxylase Broth Protocol

Decarboxylase Test - Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses

Decomposers - Definition, Mechanisms, Types, Example

Degradation of Hydrocarbons (oil spills)

Degradation of Pesticides - Types, Mechanisms

Deletion Mutation - Definition, Causes, Mechanism, Examples

Dendritic cell - Definition, Location, Structure, Types, Functions

Dengue and Dengue Virus - Overview

Denitrification - Definition, Process, Factors

Density Gradient Centrifugation - Principle, Protocol, Uses

Deoxycholate Citrate Agar (DCA) - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Deoxyribonuclease (DNase) Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Desert Ecosystem - Definition, Types, Importance

Detect the presence of specific antibody and quantitate the amount of antibody in patient’s serum

Determination of Calcium In Milk

Determination of Lactose In Milk by Lane-Eynon Method

Determination of Magnesium In Milk

Determination of Phosphorus In Milk

Detritus Food Chain - Definition, Energy Flow, Examples

Deuteromycetes - Reproduction, Characteristics, Classification and Examples

Development Stages of frog - Pre-embryonic, embryonic and post-embryonic development

Developmental Biology Introduction, Hisotry and Basic concepts

Diagnostic Techniques of Viruses - Molecular and Immunological Techniques

Diaphragm of a Microscope - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Functions

Diatoms - Definition, Structure, Life Cycle, Importance

Diatoms Under the Microscope

Diauxic Growth Curve - Definition, Occurrence

Difference Between Active Transport and Passive Transport - Active vs Passive Transport

Difference between Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration - Aerobic vs Anaerobic Respiration

Difference Between Analytical Balance and Triple Beam Balance

Difference Between Asexual and Sexual Reproduction

Difference between Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)

Difference between Biomagnification and Bioaccumulation

Difference Between Biotic and Abiotic Factors - Biotic vs Abiotic Factors

Difference Between Bone and Cartilage - Bone vs Cartilage

Difference Between Breathing and Respiration - Breathing vs Respiration

Difference Between Cation and Anion - Cation vs Anion

Difference Between cDNA and Genomic DNA - cDNA vs genomic DNA

Difference between celsius and fahrenheit - Celsius Vs Fahrenheit Scale

Difference Between Chromosome and Chromatid - Chromosome vs Chromatid

Difference Between Cilia and Flagella

Difference between Cilia and Microvilli

Difference Between Cladogram and Phylogenetic tree

Difference Between Classical, Alternative and Lectin Pathway

Difference Between Coarse and Fine Adjustment

Difference Between Communicable and non -communicable diseases

Difference Between Compound Microscope and Simple Microscope.

Difference Between Diploid and Haploid - Diploid vs Haploid

Difference Between endocytosis and exocytosis (endocytosis vs exocytosis)

Difference between enzymes and hormones - enzymes vs hormones

Difference between Epithelial tissue and Connective tissue - Epithelial tissue vs Connective tissue

Difference Between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic DNA replication

Difference between Exocrine and Endocrine Glands - Exocrine vs Endocrine Glands

Difference between exotoxins and endotoxins - exotoxins vs endotoxins

Difference between genomic and cdna library

Difference between Gram-Positive and Negative Bacteria - Gram-Negative vs. Gram-Po Bacteria

Difference Between Habitat and Niche - Habitat vs Niche

Difference between Heterochromatin and Euchromatin - Heterochromatin vs Euchromatin

Difference between hot air oven and autoclave

Difference Between Hypertonic vs Hypotonic

Difference between Incomplete dominance and Co-dominance - Incomplete dominance vs Co-dominance

Difference Between Independent and Dependent variables

Difference Between Inhalation and Exhalation - Inhalation vs Exhalation

Difference Between Lytic and Lysogenic Cycle

Difference between MHC Class I and MHC Class II - MHC Class I vs MHC Class II

Difference Between Multicellular and Unicellular Organisms

Difference between Natural and artificial selection - Natural vs artificial selection

Difference Between Northern, Southern and Western Blotting

Difference between O antigen and H antigen - O vs H antigen

Difference between One-step RT-qPCR and Two-step RT-qPCR

Difference Between Oviparous and Viviparous - Oviparous vs Viviparous

Difference between Photosystem 1 (PS1) and Photosystem 2 (PS2)

Difference between Phytoplankton and Zooplankton - Phytoplankton vs Zooplankton

Difference Between Pinocytosis and Receptor Mediated Endocytosis

Difference between Plant cell and Animal cell - Plant cell vs Animal cell

Difference Between Pollination and Fertilization - Pollination vs Fertilization

Difference Between Primary and Secondary Metabolites

Difference between Primary and Secondary Succession

Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Difference Between Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Prokaryotic cells vs Eukaryotic Cells

Difference between Quantitative and Qualitative Data - Quantitative vs Qualitative Data

Difference Between RNA Primer and DNA Primer - RNA Primer vs DNA Primer

Difference between Saturated and Unsaturated fatty acids

Difference Between Simple Diffusion and Facilitated Diffusion - Simple diffusion vs facilitated diffusion

Difference between static quenching and dynamic quenching

Difference between Vascular and Non-vascular plants - Vascular vs Non-vascular plants

Difference Between Virus and Viroids

Difference Between Xylem and Phloem - Xylem vs Phloem

Differences Between Absorption and Adsorption

Differences Between Actin and Myosin - Actin vs Myosin

Differences between Active Immunity and Passive Immunity

Differences Between Acute disease and Chronic Disease

Differences Between Agglutination and Precipitation

Differences Between Amphibians and Reptiles - Amphibians vs Reptiles

Differences between Angiosperm and Gymnosperm - Angiosperm vs Gymnosperm

Differences between Anthrax bacilli and Anthracoid bacilli

Differences Between Antigenic Shift and Antigenic Drift

Differences between Arteries and Veins - Arteries vs Veins

Differences Between Autotroph and Heterotroph

Differences between Autotroph and Heterotroph - Autotroph vs Heterotroph

Differences between B Cells and T Cells - B Cells vs T Cells

Differences Between Bacteria and Fungi - Bacteria vs Fungi

Differences between Binary fission and multiple fission

Differences Between Bones and Cartilage - Bones vs Cartilage

Differences Between Cytokines and Chemokines

Differences between Diarrhea and Dysentery - Diarrhea vs Dysentery

Differences between DNA and RNA - DNA vs RNA

Differences between DNA Replication and Transcription

Differences Between Genomics and Proteomics

Differences between Humoral Immunity and Cell mediated Immunity

Differences Between Hyaline cartilage, Elastic, and Fibrocartilage

Differences between Invertebrates and Vertebrates

Differences between Meningitis and Encephalitis

Differences Between Microfilaments and Microtubules - Microfilaments vs. Microtubules

Differences Between Mitochondria and Chloroplast - Mitochondria vs Chloroplasts

Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis - Mitosis vs Meiosis

Differences Between Monohybrid cross vs Dihybrid cross

Differences between Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Differences Between Nitrification and Denitrification

Differences Between Northern and Southern blotting - Northern blotting vs Southern blotting

Differences between Phenotype and Genotype - Phenotype vs Genotype

Differences between Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum

Differences between Pneumococcus and Viridans streptococci

Differences Between Poisonous and Non-poisonous Snakes

Differences between Primary and Secondary Succession - Primary vs Secondary Succession

Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Differences between RBC and WBC - RBC vs WBC

Differences Between Sensitivity, Specificity, False positive, False negative

Differences Between Sensitivity, Specificity, False positive, False negative

Differences between Serum and Plasma - Serum vs Plasma

Differences between Staphylococcus and Streptococcus

Differences Between Taenia Solium and Fasciola Hepatica

Differences between Transcription and Translation - Transcription vs Translation

Differences Between Transduction and Transfection - Transduction vs Transfection

Differences Between Type I Error and Type II Error

Differences Between Viroids and Prions

Differences between Voluntary and Involuntary Muscles - Voluntary vs Involuntary Muscles

Differences between Voluntary muscles and Involuntary muscles - Voluntary vs Involuntary Muscles

Differences between Yeasts and Molds - Yeasts vs Molds

Different Aseptic Techniques in Microbiology Laboratory

Different Between DNA-A form, DNA-B form, DNA-Z form

Different Buffer preparation for Gel Electrophoresis

Different classes of Antibodies and Their Properties and Function

Different Laboratory Instruments for Measuring Volumes

Different Plasma Membrane Models

Different Programming Language for Bioinformatics

Different Types of Birds

Different Types of Immunological Techniques With Examples

Differential Centrifugation - Principle, Protocol, Uses

Digastric Muscle - Definition, Structure, Types, Functions

Digestive system of Earthworms

Digital Microscope - Principle, Parts, Application, Advantages

Dinoflagellate - Definition, Structure, Reproduction, Importance, Examples

Diphtheroids - Definition, Classification, Structure, Pathogenesis, Transmission

Diploid - Definition, Importance, Examples

Direct ELISA - Principle, Protocol, Advantages

Direct Microscopic Count (DMC) Advantage, Disadvantage.

Dirt and Soil under a Microscope

Disaccharides - Definition, Classification, Functions, Examples

Disposable Glass Pasteur Pipettes

Dissecting Microscope (Stereo Microscope) Definition, Uses, Parts, Principle.

Distribution Of Microorganisms In Aquatic Environment

DNA - Definition, Structure, Properties, Types, Functions

DNA Analyzer - Principle, Parts, Operating, Applications

DNA Fingerprinting - Definition, Steps, Methods, Applications

DNA Ladders - Definition, Types, Uses

DNA Methylation - Definition, Mechanisms, Functions

DNA Microarray Principle, Types and Steps involved in cDNA microarrays

DNA Polymerase - Definition, Mechanism, Structure, Types

DNA polymerase I - Definition, Structure, Mechanism, Functions

DNA polymerase II - Definition, Structure, Mechanism, Functions

DNA polymerase III (holoenzyme)

DNA polymerase IV - Definition, Structure, Mechanism, Functions

DNA Recombination - Definition, Mechanisms, Types

DNA Repair Mechanisms and Types

DNA Sequencing - Definition, Principle, Steps, Types, Applications

DNA Transcription (RNA Synthesis) - Definition, Diagram, Steps, Inhibitors, Importance

Domain - Definition, Development, Importance, Examples

Dot Blot - Protocol, Principle, Definition.

Double Beam Balance - Principle, Procedure, Purpose, Uses

Dounce Homogenizer - Principle, Types, Procedure, Parts, Uses

Downstream Processing Steps

Drying Method of Food Preservation - Types, Methods, Examples


Ecological Succession - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Examples

E. Coli Under The Microscope

Earthworm - Habitat, Morphology, Anatomy, Significance

Eastern blot - Protocol, Principle, Application

Ebola Virus - Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Ecological efficiency - Definition, Factors, Calculation, Applications

Ecological Pyramids - Definition, Types, Examples, Importance, Limitations

Economic Importance of Algae - Food Industry, Chemical Industry, Agriculture, Medicine

Economic Importance of Fungi In Medicine, Industry, Agriculture, and Food.

Economic Importance of Protozoa and Mode of Infection

Effect of antibiotics on the cell wall

Egg Yolk Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Elastic Cartilage - Definition, Structure, Functions

Electron Microscope - Types, Parts, Application, Advantages, Disadvantages

Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) - Principle, Instrumentation, Applications

Electron Transport Chain - Diagram, Definition, Steps, Products, Importance

Electroporator – Definition, Principle, Types, Protocol, Applications

Elek test - Principle, Procedure, Result

ELISA Plate Reader - Microplate Reader or Assay Reader

ELISA test - Definition, Principle, Procedure, Types, Steps, Uses

ELISA vs Western Blot - Differences

EMB Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Embryological Evolution

Embryology - Definition, Types, Importance

Embryonic Induction And Organizers

Embryonic Stem Cells - Definition, Properties, Applications

Endemic, Epidemic, and Pandemic Definition In Microbiology.

Endo Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Endocrine Glands - Definition, Structure, Functions, Examples

Endocrine System - Definition, Classification, Functions and Endocrine glands

Endocytosis - Definition, Steps, Types, Mechanism, Function, Examples

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - Structure, Functions and Diagram

Endospore - Definition, Formation, Germination, Structure, Resistance

Endospore Staining - Principle, Procedure, Result

Endosymbiosis - Definition, Theory, Evidence, Examples

Endosymbiotic Theory - Origin of the eukaryotic cell

Endotoxin - Definition, Examples, Structure, Virulence Mechanism

Energy Flow in Ecosystem

Energy Rich Compounds - Phosphoenolpyruvate, 1,3 Bisphosphoglycerate, Thioesters, ATP

Enhancer RNAs - Definition, Biogenesis, Functions

Entamoeba Histolytica - Life Cycle, Transmission, Disease, Diagnosis, Treatment

Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) - Disease, Pathogenesis, Treatment, Diagnosis

Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) - Transmission, Disease, Pathogenesis, Treatment

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) - Diseases, Toxins, Mode of Actions, Transmission

Entner–Doudoroff pathway - definition, Steps.

Enzyme Immobilization - Definition, Methods, Advantages, Disadvantages

Enzyme Inhibition - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Examples

Enzymes - Structure, Types, Mode of Action, Functions, Applications, Examples

Enzymes (amylase, protease, lipase) Production

Eosinophil - Definition, Functions, Features, Structure

Epidermophyton floccosum

Epimers - Definition, Characteristics, Examples

Epistasis - Definition, Causes, Types, Examples

Epithelial Tissue - Definition, Characteristics, Types, and Functions

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) or Human Herpesvirus 4 - Structure, Genome, Replication

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR): Principle, Methods

Escherichia coli(E. coli) morphology, arrangement, Cultural Characteristics, Diagnosis

Esculin Hydrolysis test Principle, Procedure, Result

Ethanol Metabolism - Steps, Factors, Enzymes, Importance

Ethanol Production (Alcohol) - Ethanol fermentation

Ethical Aspects of Biological Research

Ethidium Bromide Solution Preparation and use

Ethology (Animal Behaviour) Introduction, History

Eubacteria - Definition, Structure, Characterisitcs, Types, Examples

Euglena - Definition, Characteristics, Structure, Reproduction, Importance

Euglena Eyespot - Definition, Function, Types, Structure, Proteins

Euglena Under The Microscope

Eukaryotic Cell - Definition, Structure, Functions, Examples

Eukaryotic DNA Replication - Definition, Steps, Singnification

Eukaryotic Transcription

Eutrophication - Definition, Causes, Types, and Effects

Evidences of Evolution

Evolution of Parazoa and Metazoa

Excretory System of Earthworm

Exocrine Glands - Definition, Structure, Functions, Types, Examples

Exocytosis - Definition, Types, Steps, Examples

Exon - Definition, Types, Structure, Functions

Experimental Group - Definition, Importance, Examples

Experiments on DNA Structure

Expression of MHC Molecules

Extinction - Background extinction, Mass extinction

Extra-embryonic Membranes in Chick - Definition, Types, Development, Functions

Extremophiles - Definition, Classification, Examples

Extremophiles - Microbiology of Extreme Environments Definition, Types, Examples

Extrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis - Definition, Mechanism, Functions, Regulation

Eye and Ear Microbiome - Normal Flora of Eye & Ear


Facilitated Diffusion - Definition, Principle, Examples

Facilitated Diffusion vs Active transport

Factor affecting bacterial growth

Factors Affecting Fermentation Characteristics of Starter Cultures 

Factors affecting the growth of microorganisms in food

Factors Affecting The Growth Of Microorganisms In Foods

Factors Of Ecosystem - Definition, Types

Factors That Affects Enzyme Activity

Fasciola hepatica - Definition, Structure, Reproducation, Life Cycle

Fascioliasis: Causative agent, Life cycle, Symptoms, Treatment.

FASTA - Definition, Programs, Working, Steps, Applications

Fate Map - Definition, Construction and Applications

Fate of Pyruvate: Acetyl CoA, Lactate, Alcohol Formation.

Fates of Pyruvate

Fatty acid - Definition, Structure, Types, Functions

Feedback Inhibition - Definition, Process, Functions, Examples

Feedback Mechanism - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Examples

Feeder Pathways for Glycolysis

Fehling's Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Fermentation - Definition, Types, Principle, Products, Stages, Limitations

Fermentation Foods - Bread

Fermentation Foods - Malt Beverages

Fermentation Foods - Vinegar

Fermentation Foods - Wines

Fermentation Media - Media Used For The Growth of Microorganisms in Industries

Fertilization - Changes in Gametes, Monospermy and Polyspermy

Fertilization - Definition, Types, Process

Filtration - Definition, Mechanisms, Types, Examples, Application

Filtration Sterilization - Types, Mechanism, Uses

Fimbriae and Pili - Definition, Structure, Types, Functions, Differences.

Flagella - Definition, Structure, Types, Functions, Rotation, Examples

Flagella Staining - Principle, Procedure, Result

Flagellar Movement Mechanisms and Chemotaxis.

Flash chromatography - Principle, Instrumentation, Protocol, Applications

Flora vs Fauna - Differences between Flora and Fauna

Flow Cytometry - Principle, Process, Uses

Flow Cytometry - Types, Purpose, Reagents, Examples, Application

Flow Cytometry Laboratory for cell viability staining using propidium iodide.

Fluid Mosaic Model of Plasma Membrane

Fluorescence Microscopy - Definition, Principle, Parts, Uses, Examples

Fluorescence Spectrophotometry - Definition, Principle, Parts, Advantages, Uses

Folin-Wu Method For Estimation of Blood Glucose

Food Chain - Definition, Types, Parts, Examples

Food Irradiation - Definition, Symbol, Process, Applications, Disadvantages

Food Microflora - Molds

Food Poisoning by Bacillus cereus - Foodborne Toxins

Food poisoning by Listeria monocytogenes - Listeriosis

Food Preservation - Chemical Preservatives with Types, Examples

Food Preservation by chemicals - Food Additives

Food Preservation by Irradiation

Food Preservation By Low Temperatures

Food Preservation by Using High Temperatures

Food Preservation method by Low Temperature - Refrigeration, Chilling, Freezing

Food Spoilage General Principles - Chemical Changes Caused by Microorganisms

Food Technology, Bioengineering and Bioreactor

Food Vacuole - Definition, Types, Formation, Structure, Functions

Food Web - Definition, Types, Examples

Foodborne Giardiasis - Definition, Pathogenesis, Contamination

Foodborne Infection by Shigella - Shigellosis Food Poisoning

Foodborne Microorganism - Bacteria

Foodborne Microorganism - Yeasts

Foodborne Viruses - Definition, Examples, Detection, Prevention

Forest Ecosystem - Definition, Types, Functions

Formation and Fate of Germ Layers

Fossils - Definition, Types, Formation, Dating, Examples

Four Types of Protein Structure With Diagram - Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary

Fragmentation - Definition, Steps, Importance, Advantages, Disadvantages

Frederick Griffith Experiment - Bacterial transformation

Fructose Metabolism Pathway - Fructolysis

Funaria - Structure, Characteristics, Reproduction

Fungi - Characteristics, Occurrence, Cell Structure, Nutrition, Thallus Organisation, Mycelium.

Fungi - Definition, Characteristics, Morphology, Importance, Thallus Organization.

Fungi: Types of Fungi and Their Reproduction.

Fusarium spp - Definition, Structure, Pathogenesis


G Protein Coupled Receptors - Structure, Functions, and Mechanism

gab Operon - Definition, Structure, Regulation

Galactose (Gal) Operon - Structure, Regulation

Gametogenesis - Definition, Types, Steps

Gamma-ray Spectroscopy - Definition, Principle, Parts, Uses

Gardnerella Vaginalis - Habitat, Morphology, Genome, Treatment

Gas Chromatography - Definition, Parts, Principle, Working, uses

Gas Treatment in Food Preservation Technique

GasPak Anaerobic System - Principle, Application

Gastrointestinal Amebiasis by Entamoeba histolytica

GATE Syllabus for Biotechnology (BT) PDF

Gause’s Principle With laboratory and Field examples

Gel Electrophoresis System - Definition, Principle, Parts, Types, Procedure

Gel Filtration Chromatography - Principle, Components, Steps, Types, Application

Gel Permeation Chromatography - Definition, Principle, Parts, Steps, Applications

Gel Staining Procedure for PAGE

Gelatin Hydrolysis Test - Purpose, Principle, Procedure, Result.

Gene Cloning - Steps, Definition, Applications

Gene Expression Profiling - Definition, Uses, Limitations

Gene frequencies - Definition, Calculation, Importance

Gene Interaction - Definition, Types, Examples, Importance

Gene Mapping - Definition, Types, Applications

Gene Pool - Definition, Types, Working, Importance, Evolution, Examples

Gene Prediction - Definition, Methods, Importance

Gene Silencing - Definition, Process, Techniques, Applications

Gene Therapy - Definition, Types, Vectors, Applications

General Protocol for Western Blotting

Genetic Code - Definition, Characteristics, Wobble Hypothesis

Genetic Engineering - Definition, Tools, Steps, Advantages, Applications, Examples

Genus - Definition, Advantages, Uses, Examples

Gerhardt's test Principle, Procedure, Result

Germ Theory of Disease

Giardia duodenalis (Giardia lamblia or Giardia intestinalis)

Giardiasis - Definition, treatment, symptoms, diagnosis, prevention.

Gibberellin - Definition, Structure, Biosynthesis, Functions, Uses

Gibbs Free Energy

Giemsa Stain - Preparation, Procedure, Principle, Composition and Application

Giolitti-Cantoni Broth for Staphylococcus aureus

Gland - Definition, Structure, Types, Functions, Examples

Glandular Epithelium - Functions, definition, structure, examples

Glass Bulb Pipette - Everythig You Need to Know

Glass Dropper Pipette - Everything You Need To Know

Glass Pipettes - Definition, Principle, Types, Handling, and Uses

Glass Serological Pipettes - Everythings You Need to Know

Gluconeogenesis - Definition, Steps, Reactions, Substrates, Importance

Gluconic Acid Production

Glucose Tolerance Test - Principle, Procedure, Types, Applications

Glycocalyx - Definition, Composition, Types, Functions.

Glycogen - Defintion, Structure, Functions, Examples

Glycogen Metabolism in Human Body

Glycolysis - Definition, Steps, Enzymes, Regulation, Result

Glycolysis 10 Steps With Diagram and ATP Formation

Glycoprotein - Definition, Structure, Functions, Examples

GOD-POD Method For The Estimation Of Blood Glucose

Golgi Apparatus - Definition, Structure, Functions, and Diagram

Golgi Body (Golgi Complex) - Structure, Functions

Gonadal hormones - Secretion, Functions, Mechanism, Regulation

Gradient PCR - Definition, Principle, Process, Functions

Gram Negative bacteria - Definition, Structure, Characteristics, Importance

Gram Positive bacteria - Definition, Structure, Characteristics, Examples

Gram Staining - Procedure, Principle, and Results

Gram-Sure (L-Alanine-7-amido-4-methylcourmarin) Test 

Grassland Ecosystem - Definition, Types, Components

Grazing Food Chain - Definition, Types, Examples and Features

Grocott-Gomori’s Methenamine Silver Staining - Principle, Procedure, Applications

Growth at 42 Test - Growth of Non Fermentative Bacteria at 42°C


Haemagglutination Test - Principle, Procedure, Result, Material

Hand Washing Steps And Guidelines By CDC and WHO with Video and Infographic

Hanging Drop Method (Motility test) Principle, and Procedure, Result, Uses

Hanta Virus - Definition, Structure, Genome, Replication

Haploid - Definition, Importance, Examples

Haworth Projection - Definition, Characterisitcs, Examples

Heart Infusion Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Heat and Acetic Acid Test for Proteinuria - Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Heat Coagulation Test of Proteins - Principles, Procedure, Result

Heat Treatment for Food Preservation

Hektoen Enteric Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

HeLa Cells - Definition, Characteristics, Significance, Applications

Hemagglutination Inhibition Test

Hematocrit Centrifuge - Definition, Principle, Parts, Uses

Hematopoiesis - Definition, Process, Locations

Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) Staining - Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Hemocytometer and Haemocytometry

Hemoglobin - Definition, Structure and Function

Hemoglobin - Definition, Structure and Function

Hepatitis A Virus - Structure, Replication, Pathogenesis, Genome, Transmission

Hepatitis B Virus - Structure, Replication, Pathogenesis, Genome, Transmission

Hepatitis C virus - Structure, Replications, Pathogenesis, Genome Structure

Hepatitis D Virus - Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis,

Hepatitis E Virus - Structure, Genome, Transmission, Replication, Diagnosis, Treatment

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)

Hershey–Chase experiment On DNA

Heterogeneous Nuclear RNA (hnRNA)

Heterotroph - Definition, Types, Importance, Examples

High Pressure Homogenizer - Principle, Types, Parts, Uses

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

High-Pressure Processing (HPP) - Dfinition, Principle, Process, Applications

Hippurate Hydrolysis Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Histology - Definition, Methods, Careers, Importance

History and Scope of Microbiology

History of Life - Overview, Chemogeny, Biogeny, RNA World, Major Events in History of Life

History of Microbiology 

History of the Microscope

History, Branches, and Career Opportunities of Microbiology

Homeostasis - Definition, Mechanism, Types, Importance, Examples

Homogenizer - Principle, Parts, Types, Procedure, Uses

Homology Modeling - Definition, Steps, Diagram, Applications

Honey bee - Definition, Types, Behaviour

Hopkins Cole test (Adamkiewicz–Hopkins) Principle, Procedure, Result

Hormone - Definition, Structure, Types, Functions, Examples

Host Pathogen Interaction

Host-Parasite Interactions - Definition, Types, Mechanism

Hot Air Oven - Definition, Principle, Uses, Parts, Application, Procedure.

How  L-arabinose operon different from other operons?

How are samples prepared for a transmission electron microscope?

How Are Vaccines Made?

How is plant cell cytokinesis different from animal cell cytokinesis?

How is plant cell cytokinesis different from animal cell cytokinesis?

How Neurons Communicate - Resting membrane potential

How to balance a centrifuge? - Centrifuge Balancing

How to calibrate a Microscope With a Stage Micrometer?

How to Calibrate ph Meter?

How to construct a Phylogenetic tree?

How to Use a Compound Microscope

How to Use a Micropipette?

How To Use A Microscope Properly

Human Astrovirus - An Overview

Human Brain - Definition, Structure, Characteristics, Functions

Human Circulatory Circuit - Definition, Characteristics, Types, Importance

Human Circulatory System - Definition, Structure, Organs, Functions

Human Cytomegalovirus - Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Human Digestive System - Organs, Structure, Functions

Human Female Reproductive System - Organs, Structure, Functions

Human Heart - Definition, Location, Anatomy, Structure, Functions

Human Male Reproductive System - Organs, Structure, Functions

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) - Definition, Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis, Treatment

Humoral Immunity - Definition, Mechanism

Hyaline Cartilage - Definition, Structure, Functions

Hyaline Casts in Urine - Types, Morphology, Clinical Significance

Hybridization Probes - definition, uses, Preparation, Types.

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC)

Hypersensitivity - Definition, Types, Mechanisms, Examples

Hypersensitivity Type I, II, III and IV- Summary in table form

Hyphae - Definition, Types, Structure, Production, Functions, Examples

Hypothalamus - Definition, Structure, Functions

Hypotonic Solution - Definition, Importance, Examples


Immune Response - Definition, Factors, Types, Examples

Immunity - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Components, and Immunization

Immunodeficiencies - Definition, Types, Animal models(Nude and SCID mice)

Immunodiffusion Reaction 

Immunoelectrophoresis - Principle, Applications, Procedure, Results, Advantages and Disadvantages.

Immunofluorescence Assay - Principle, Protocol, Types, Uses

Immunofluorescence Quenching Solution Preparation and Application

Immunoglobulin A (IgA Antibody) - Structure, Subclasses and Functions

Immunoglobulin D (IgD) - Definition, Properties, Structure and Functions

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) - Definition, Structure and Functions

Immunoglobulin G (IgG Antibody)- Definition, Structure, Subclasses and Functions

Immunoglobulin M (IgM Antibody) - Definition, Structure, Functions

Immunological Tolerance - Definition, Mechanism, Types

Immunotherapy For Tumors

Implantation of embryo in Humans - Definition, Process

IMViC test procedure, Purpose, Result, and Organism List.

In Silico drug designing and role of bioinformatics

In Vitro Fertilization - Definition, Principle, Procedure, Applications

Incinerator - Definition, Principle, Types, Applications

Inclusion Bodies - Definition, Classification, Examples

Incomplete Dominance - Definition, Mechanism, Examples

Incubator - Definition, Principle, Components, Types, Operating Procedure, Use.

Indirect ELISA- Introduction, Steps, Advantages and Protocol

Indole Test - Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Industrial centrifuge - Definition, Parts, Types, Uses

Infertility in male and female - Causes, Diagnosis and Management

Inflammation - Definition, Causes, Symptoms

Influenza A Virus - Structure, Genome, Replication, Treatment, Prevention

Infrared Spectroscopy (IR Spectroscopy) - Principle, Instrumentation, Application

Innate Immunity - Definition, Types, Mechanism

Innate Immunity vs. Acquired Immunity (Adaptive immunity)

Inoculating Loops and Needles - Definition, Principle, Parts, Procedure, Applications

Insect morphology (Morphology of Pest)

Integral Protein - Definition, Types, Structure, Functions, Examples

Integrated Pest Management - Cultural, biological, chemical, genetic control

Integument In Vertebrates - Structure, Functions and Derivatives.

Interactions In communities - Types, Definition, Examples

Intermediate Filaments - Definition, Structure, Function 

Interphase - Definition, Stages, Control, Importance

Intrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis - Definition, Process

Introduction of Microbiology and Microbe

Introduction to Ecology - Definition, Types, History, levels of organization

Intron - Definition, Structure, Functions

Introns vs Exons - Difference, Definition, Functions, Structure

Inverted Fluorescent Microscope - Principle, Protocol, Parts, Uses

Inverted Microscope - Principle, Procedure, Parts, Uses

Iodine Test - Iodine test for starch Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Ion Exchange Chromatography – Definition, Principle, Protocol, Applications, Examples

Ion exchange mechanism in Ion Exchange Chromatography

Ion exchange mechanism in Ion Exchange Chromatography

Iron and Manganese Cycles - Steps, Importance

Iron-Hematoxylin Staining - Principle, Procedure, Result

Isolation of Microorganism From Air

Isolation of Microorganisms from Soil

Isomerism - Definition, Types, Examples, Structures

Isomerism - Definition, Types, Explanation, Examples


Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Virus

Jaw Suspension In Vertebrates


Karyotype and Idiogram - Definition, Procedure, Steps, Applications

Keto Enol Tautomerization - Definition, Mechanism, Examples

Ketone Bodies - Definition, Structure, Production, Functions

Kidney - Structure, Anatomy, Urine Formation, acid-base balance, and Function

Kingdom Animalia - Different Phylum, Classification, Characteristics

Kingdom Monera - Classification, Characteristics, Importance, Examples

Kingdom Protista - Characteristics, Classification, Reproduction, Life Cycle, Examples

Kinyoun stain (Acid Fast Cold) Method - Principle, Procedure, Result

Kirby Bauer Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Test Protocol

Kligler’s Iron Agar Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

KOH Test (Potassium hydroxide test) Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses

Krebs Cycle - Definition, Steps, Products, Regulation.


L-form bacteria - Definition, Size and shape, Culturing , Applications

L-Glutamic Acid Production

Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections

Laboratory Flask - Definition, Types, Uses

Laboratory Hot Plate -  Definition, Principle, Parts, Uses

Laboratory Refrigerators and Freezers - Principle, Parts, Applications

Laboratory Rules - Basic Rules Of A Microbiology Laboratory

Laboratory Test Tube - Definition, Types, Uses

Laboratory Water bath - Principle, Types, Parts, Operating Procedure, Uses

Lac Operon (lactose operon) - Definition, Structure, Mechanisms

Lactic Acid Production

Lactic Acid Starter Culture

Lactobacilli MRS Broth and Agar - Composition, Preparation, Principle

Lactobacillus acidophilus - Definition, Morphology, Classification, Habitat

Lactobacillus MRS Broth Test - Principle, Procedure, and Results

Lactophenol Cotton Blue (LPCB) Mounts

Lactophenol Cotton Blue Staining - Principle, Procedure, Result.

Lamarck’s Theory of Evolution - Postulates, Examples, Drawbacks

Lamina Propria - Definition, Structure, Functions

Laminar flow hood/cabinet - Parts, Principle, Application

Lassa Virus - An Overview

Latest CSIR NET Syllabus Life Science PDF – CSIR NET UNIT Wise Syllabus

Latex agglutination test - Definition, Procedure, Principle, Advantages, Limitation, Uses

Leaf Structure Under the Microscope

Learning Behaviour - Definition, Types, Examples

Lectin Pathway of the Complement System

Leishmaniasis - Life cycle, Treatment, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention, Types, Distribution.

Lentiviral Transfection Protocol

Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) Test Principle, Procedure, Results

Levels of Ecological Organization - Definition, Examples

Levinthal’s Medium - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Life cycle of Algae - Haplontic, Diplontic, Diplohaplontic, and Triphasic.

Life Cycle of Fasciola Hepatica

Light Microscope - Labeled Diagram, Definition, Principle, Types, Parts, Applications

Light Microscope vs Electron Microscope - Definition, Parts, Principle

Lineweaver–Burk Plot - Double Reciprocal Plot

Linkage (Genetic linkage) - Definition, Types, Example, Importance

Linkage isomerism - Definition, Examples

Lipase Test - Principle, Procedure, results

Lipid Hydrolysis Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Lipids - Definition, Structure, Properties, Types, Functions, Examples

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - Structure, Functions

Liposome - Definition, Structure, Composition, Applications

Liquid Chromatography - Definition, Types, Principle, Protocol, Applications

Liquid Waste Management

List of Top 10 Mini Centrifuge

List of Top Biotechnology Techniques

Litmus Milk Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Loa loa Life cycle, Morphology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Transmission, Treatment

Locomotion In Protista - Definition, Organs, Locomotion Types

Loeffler Medium - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Lotka Volterra equation for competition and Predation

Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) Media - Composition, Preparation, Uses

Lymph Nodes - Definition, Location, Structure and Functions

Lymphatic filariasis - Wuchereria bancrofti

Lymphocytes - Definition, Development, Types and Functions

Lysine decarboxylase test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Lysine Iron Agar (LIA) - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Lysine Iron Agar (LIA) Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Lysogenic Cycle - Definition, Steps, Importance

Lysogeny broth (LB) Preparation

Lysosome - Definition, Structure, Functions, Types

Lysosomes - Definition, Structure, Formation, Functions, Types and Diagram

Lytic Cycle - Definition, Steps, Importance, Examples


MacConkey Agar - Composition, Uses, Colony Characteristics

Macroevolution - Definition, Principle, Process, Features, Examples

Macronutrients - Definition, Importance, Examples

Macrophage - Definition, Structure, Mechanism, Functions

Magnetic Stirrer - Definition, Principle, Types, Parts, Uses

Major Histocompatibility Complex I - Definition, Structure, Mechanism, Functions

Major Histocompatibility Complex II (MHC II molecules) - Structure, Mechanism and Functions

Malonate Test - Principle, Procedure, Results

Mammals (Mammalia) - General characters and Classification up to Order

Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Mantoux Test - Procedure, Normal Range and Result Interpretation

Marchantia - Definition, Structure, Reproduction, Classification

Martin Lewis Agar - Composition, Preparation, Principle, Uses

Mass Spectrometry (MS) - Principle, Parts, Working, Steps, Uses

Masson’s Trichrome Staining - Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Mast cell - Definition, Structure, Functions

Mayer's Hemalum Solution Preparation and Application

McIntosh and Fildes’ Anaerobic Jar Principle, Procedure

Measles Virus - Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Measurement of Bacterial Growth

Measurement Of Microorganisms - Micrometry

Mechanical and chemical digestion of food - Absorptions of Differenet Molecules

Mechanism of Action of Antiviral Drugs

Mechanisms of Behaviour

Mechanisms of Protein Synthesis Regulation in Eukaryotes Cells

Mechanisms of Protein Synthesis Regulation in Prokaryotic Cells

Medical Significance of Gram-Negative Cocci and Coccobacilli

Meiosis - Definition, Types, Steps, Importance, Examples

Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) - Principle, Types, Process, Uses

Membrane Carbohydrate - Types, Structure, and Function

Membrane Filtration Method - Types, Advantages, Disadvantages, Applications.

Membrane Lipids - Definition, Structure, Formation, Functions

Membrane Proteins - Definition, Types, Functions

Mendel’s Law of Dominance - Definition, Characteristics, Limitations, Examples

Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment - Definition, Examples, Limitations

Mendel’s Law of Segregation - Definition, Principle, Examples, Limitations

Mendelian Inheritance & Mendelian Genetics - Definition, Experiment, Laws, Exceptions

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells - Definition, Structure, Location, and Function

Mesophiles - Habitat, Adaptations, Roles, Examples

Mesophyll Cells - Definition, Location, Structure, Function, Microscopy

Mesosomes - Definition, Functions

Metamorphosis - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Importance, Examples

Metaphase - Definition, Stages, Applications

Method for Balancing in Laboratory - Weight or Mass Measurement

Methods of food preservation - Physical and Chemical Methods 

Methyl Red (MR) Test - Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses

Methylene Blue Reduction Test

MHC Genes - H-2 Complex and HLA Complex

MHC Molecules (Major Histocompatibility Complex) - Definition, Properties, Class, Types, Pathways

MIC Test Strip - Quantitative assay for determining the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration

Microbe-Microbe Interactions

Microbe-Plant interaction - Types, Examples

Microbial Control Methods

Microbial degradation of cellulose - Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms

Microbial Degradation of Chitin - Definition, Microorganisms, Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms

Microbial degradation of hemicellulose - Definition, Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms

Microbial Degradation of Lignin - Microorganisms, Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms, Challenges

Microbial degradation of Pectin - Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms

Microbial Food Spoilage - Causes, Classification, Process, Factors

Microbial interaction - Definition, Types, Characteristics, Examples

Microbial spoilage of Beverages and their preservation

Microbial Spoilage of Canned foods And Its Preservation Methods - Canning Steps

Microbial spoilage of fish and fish products and its preservation

Microbial Spoilage of Milk and Milk Products - Cream, Butter, Cheese, Yoghurt, Ice-cream

Microbodies - Peroxisomes and Glyoxysomes

Microdase Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Microevolution - Definition, Causes, Examples

Microfilaments - Definition, Structure, Function

Microinjection - Definition, Types, Principle, Steps Applications

Microorganism - Definition, Types, Importance, Examples

Microorganisms in food Spoilage - Microbes in food spoilage

Micropipettes – Parts, Types, Applications, Techniques

Microprojectile Bombardment - Definition, Components, Steps, Applications

Micropropagation - Definition, Application, Advantages, Disadvantages

Microscope Condenser - Types, Parts, Mechanism, Uses

Microscope Nosepiece - Explained

Microscope Slides Preparation Step By Step Guide

Microsporum spp. culture, infections, treatment, prevention.

Microtome - Principle, Parts, Types, and Uses

Microtubules - Definition, Structure, Functions

Microvilli - Definition, Structure, Functions and Diagram

Middlebrook Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Migration in birds - Definition, Types, Reasons, Disadvantages

Migration In Fishes - Definition, Types, Significance, Examples

Milk Pasteurization - Definition, Procedure, Types, Purpose

Millon’s Test - Definition, Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

miRNA (microRNA) Structure, Functions, Application

Mitochondria - Definition, Origin, Structure, Functions

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Replication Mechanism, Factors

Mitochondrial Shuttles and Transporter Proteins.

Mitosis - Definition, Phases, Significance, Functions

Mode of action of antibiotics and classification.

Mode of Transport Across Plasma Membrane

Models of Energy Flow in a Ecosystem - Linear and Y-shaped food chains

Modern Contraceptive Technologies

Modes of Nutrition in Protists - Types, Processes, Example

Modified Kirby-Bauer Disc Diffusion Method

Modified Thayer Martin Agar - Composition, Preparation, and Principle

Moist Heat Sterilization - Principle, Advantages, Disadvantages

Molecule - Definition, Types, Characteristics, Examples

Molisch’s Test Objective, Principle, Procedure, Result

Monkeypox Virus - Pictures, Structure, Classification, Prevention, Treatment, Spread

Monoclonal Antibodies - Definition, Types, Production, Side Effect, Applications

Monocot and Dicot Leaves Definition, Structure, Differences, and Examples

Monocot Seed - Definition, Structure, Example, Characteristics

Monocytes - Definition, Structure, Types, Functions

Monohybrid Cross - Definition, Steps, Examples, Practice

Monosaccharides - Definition, Structure, Types, Examples

Morphology of Bacteria - Sizes, Shapes, Arrangements, Examples With Images

Moss - Definition, Types, Life Cycle, Importance, Examples

Most Infectious and Deadliest Diseases Caused By Bacteria

Most Probable Number (MPN) Test - Principle, Procedure, Results

Motility - Definition, Types, Importance, Examples

mRNA - Structure, Definition, Functions, Types

mRNA Degradation in Prokaryotic Cells

Mucic acid test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissues (MALT) - Definition, Features, Structure, Functions and Examples

Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) Composition, Principle, Preparation

Multiple Alleles - Definition, Characteristics, Examples, Importance

Mumps Virus - Definition, Replication, Structure, Genome, Pathogenesis

Muscle - Definition, Types, Structure, Functions

Muscle Cell - Definition, Structure, Functions, Examples

Muscular Tissue - Definition, Characteristics, Structure, Types, Functions

Mutarotation - Definition, Mechanism, Measurement, Example

Mutualism - Definition, Types, Examples

Mycology - Defintion, History, Career, Importance

Mycorrhiza - Definition, Types, Examples, Importance

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) Stain - Principle, Procedure, Result


Nagler Reaction - Lecithinase Test

Naked DNA - Definition, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages

Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE)

Natural killer (NK) cells - Definition, Structure, Function, Mechanism

Necrosis - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Causes

Negative Feedback - Definition, Mechanism, Importance, Examples

Negative Staining - Principle, Procedure, Result

Negative staining of Viruses - Principle, Procedure, Uses

Nelson Somogyi Method for Determination of reducing sugars

Neo-Darwinism Theory

Nephron - Definition, Structure, Physiology, Functions

Nervous System - Definition, Parts, Functions

Nervous System of Earthworm

Nervous System of Frog

Nervous tissue - Definition, Structure, Location, Characteristics, Types, Functions

Neuromuscular Junction - Definition, Structure, Steps, Significance

Neuron - Definition, Structure, Types, Functions

Neutralization Test - Definition, Principle, Types, Procedure, Results, Applications

Neutrophil - Definition, Structure, Functions

New York City Agar - Composition, Preparation, Result, Uses

Next Generation Sequencing - Principle, Steps Involved, and Applications

Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)- Definition, Types, Applications, Limitations

Ninhydrin Test Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Nipah Virus (NiV) - Definition, Structure, Genome, Replication, Transmission

Nitrate Reduction Test - Procedure, Principle, Result

Nitrite Reduction Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Nitrocefin test - Principle, Procedure, Uses

Nitrogen Cycle - Definition, Steps, Importance, Examples

Nitrogen Fixation - Definition, Importance, Processes

NMR Spectroscopy - Definition, Principle, Steps, Parts, Uses

Nodulation - Steps, Structure, Functions

Non-Specific Immune Response - Definition, Mechanism

Northern Blotting - Protocol, Principle, Application, Result

Norwalk Virus (Norovirus) Symptoms, Transmission, Prevention, Treatment

Nosocomial Infection - Prevention, Source, Transmission

Novobiocin Susceptibility Test Principle, Procedure, Results

Nuclear Fast Red Solution Preparation and Application

Nuclear Staining by Giemsa stain - Procedure, Principle, Result

Nuclear Staining of Filamentous Fungi

Nucleoid - Definition, Functions, Characteristics

Nucleolus - Definition, Structure, Functions

Nucleoside - Definition, Types, Structure, Functions

Nucleotide Biosynthesis Pathways - Salvage pathway and De novo synthesis

Nucleotide Databases - Definition, Types, Examples, Uses

Nucleotides and Nucleosides - Definition, Structure, Function, Types

Nucleus - Definition, Structure, Diagram, and Functions

Nutrient Agar - Principle, Composition, Preparation, Results, Uses

Nutritional types of bacteria - Classification of bacteria based on Nutritional Requirement

Nylander’s Test for Carbohydrates Principle, Procedure, Result


o-Nitrophenyl-b-D-Galactopyranoside (ONPG) Test Principle, Procedure

Obelia - Definition, Structure, Metagenesis, Reproduction

Objective Lenses - Principle, Types, Specification, Uses

Obligate Anaerobes - Definition, Identification, Mechanism, Uses, Examples

Ocular Micrometer - Definition, Principle, Parts, Applications

OF (Oxidation-Fermentation) Test Principle, Purpose, Procedure

Oil Immersion - Technique, objectives, Resolving Power, Used for, Types.

Oil Immersion Technique - objectives, Resolving Power, Used for, Types.

Okazaki Fragments - Definition, Discovery, Formation, Enzymes, Importance

One Step Growth Curve of Virus

Onion Cells Under a Microscope

Operon - Structure, Definition, Types, Functions

Opsonization - Definition, Mechanism, Types, Examples

Optochin Susceptibility Test - Principle, Objective, Procedure And Results

Organic Waste Recycling - Definition, Characteristics, Methods, Steps, Significance

Organism - Definition, Types, Structure, Examples

Organs of Immune System – Lymphoid Organs

Oriental Fermented Foods 

Orientation Patterns of Behaviour

Origin and Evolution of Man

Origin of Chordates - Dipleurula concept, Echinoderm theory

Ornithine Decarboxylase Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Osazone Test for Carbohydrates Principle, Procedure, Result

Osmotic Pressure - Definition, Equations, Types, Importance, Examples

Ossification (Bone Growth and Development) - Definition, Steps, Importance

Osteichthyes - Characteristics, Classification and Examples

Ouchterlony Double Immunodiffusion Method

Overview of Bacillus anthracis

Oxidase Test - Definition, Principle, Procedure, Result, Application

Oxidation Pond - Definition, Mechanisms

Oxidative Phosphorylation - Definition, Steps, Enzymes, Factors

Oxidizing Agent - Definition, Factors, Applications, Examples

Oxygen Toxicity - Mechanism, Damages, Protective Mechanism

Ozone Treatment as a Food Preservation Technique


Pyramid of Numbers - Definition, Types, Importance, Examples

P-value - definition, significance, formula, table, finding p-value

PAM Sequence (Protospacer adjacent motif) - Definition, Functions, Properties

Papanicolaou Staining (Pap stain) - Principle, Procedure, Results, Applications

Paper Chromatography - Principle, Types, Instrumentation, Steps

Papovaviruses - Overview

Paramecium Cell Definition, Characteristics, Classification, Movement, Diagram.

Paramecium Under Microscope

Parasexual cycle in Fungi

Parasitism - Definition, Types, Examples

Parasporal Crystal Stain - Principle, Procedure, Result

Parental Care in Fishes - Different Methods with Examples

Parthenogenesis - Definition, Types

Parts of a Microscope and Their Functions

Parvovirus - Definition, Classification, Morphology, Diagnosis

Passive Immunity - Definition, Types, Characteristics, Examples

Passive Immunization - Definition, Advantages, Disadvantages, Examples

Passive Transport - Definition, Types, Examples

Pasteurization - Definition, Types, Process, Uses

Pathogen Virulence Factors Definition and Pathogenicity

Pauly’s Test - Definition, Principle, Procedure, Uses

PCR Machine - Definition, Principle, Parts, Types Steps, Applications, Examples

Penicillin Production

Penicillin Under a Microscope

Penicillium chrysogenum - Morphology, Habitat, Characteristics

Pentose Phosphate Pathway - Definition, Steps, Regulation, Importance

Peptide Bond - Definition, Structure, Formation, Hydrolysis, Examples

Peptone Water - Principle, Composition, Preparation, Uses

Peptone Yeast Dextrose Broth (Cantino) - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Uses

Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) Staining - Principle, Procedure, result, Uses

Peripheral Protein - Structure, Examples, Functions

Peroxide Value Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Peroxisomes -Definition, Structure, Enzymes, and Functions

Pest - Definition, Types, Resurgence, Importance

Petri dish - Definition, Structure, Types, Uses

PH Meter - Principle, Parts, Types, Procedure, Calibration, Application, Examples

Phagocytosis - Definition, Steps, and Example

Phase Contrast Microscopy: definition, parts, uses, working principle.

Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method for Total Carbohydrates

Phenotype - Definition, Importance, Examples

Phenylalanine Deaminase Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Phenylethyl Alcohol Agar - Composition, Preparation, Uses, Limitation

Phosphorus Cycle - Definition, Steps, Examples, Significance, and Human Impacts

Photo bioreactor - Definition, Types, Application, Advantages

Photoautotroph - Definition, Importance, Examples

Photosynthesis - Definition, Steps, Equation, Process, Diagram, Examples

Photosynthetic Bacteria - Examples, Definition, Vs Chemosynthetic Bacteria

Photosystem I (PS1) - Structure, Functions

Phototropism - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Importance, Examples

Phyllosphere Microorganisms - Examples, Factors, Effects

Phylogenetic Tree - Definition, Types, Steps, Methods, Uses

Phylogeny - Definition, Importance, Limitations, Examples

Phylum - Definition, Importance, Examples

Phylum Annelida - Definition, Characteristics, Classification

Phylum Annelida - Definition, Characteristics, Classification, Examples

Phylum Arthropoda - Definition, Classification, Characteristics, Examples

Phylum Aschelminthes - classification, characteristics, examples

Phylum Aschelminthes - Definition, Examples, Characteristics

Phylum Ascomycota Overview

Phylum Chordata - Definition, Characteristics, Classes

Phylum Cnidaria - General characteristics and classification

Phylum Coelenterata (Cnidaria) - Definition, Classification, Characteristics

Phylum Ctenophora - Characteristics, Classification, Examples

Phylum Ctenophora - Definition, Classification, Characteristics, examples

Phylum Echinodermata - Definition, Classification, Characteristics, Examples

Phylum Hemichordata - Definition, Classification, Characteristics, Examples

Phylum Mollusca - Classification, Definition, Characteristics, Examples

Phylum Nemathelminthes - Definition, General Characteristics, Classification

Phylum Nematoda - Classification, Definition, Characteristics, Examples

Phylum Onychophora - Characteristics, Classification

Phylum Platyhelminthes - Characteristics, Classification, Examples

Phylum Platyhelminthes - Classification, Definition, Characteristics, Examples

Phylum Porifera - Definition, Characteristics, Classification

Phylum Porifera - Definition, General Characteristics, Classification, Structure, Reproduction

Physical Methods of Sterilization

Physiological Buffer preparation

Physiology of hearing - Ear Structure, Functions

Physiology of Vision - Eye Structure, Function, Vision Mechanism

Phytoplankton - Definition, Types, Importance, Example

Phytoplankton - Definition, Types, Importance, Example

Phytoremediation - Definition, Types, Mechanisms

Picric Acid Test for Glucose - Principle, Procedure, Result

Pipette - Definition, Principle, Parts, Procedure, Applications

Pipetting - Technique, Definition, Types

Placenta - Definition, Structure, Types, Functions

Plant cell - Structure, Definition, Diagram, Organelles

Plant cell - Structure, Definition, Diagram, Organelles

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)

Plant Tissue Culture Definition, techniques, Media composition, types, application.

Plasmid Replication - Mechanism With Diagram

Plasmids - Definition, Structure, Functions, Examples

Plasmodesmata - Definition, Structure, Functions and Diagram

Plasmodium - Definition, Life Cycle, Characteristics, Morphology, Diagram

Plasmodium vivax - Life Cycle in Man and in Mosquito

Plasmolysis - Definition, Stages, Functions, Examples,

Plastids - Types, Structure, Functions

Plate Count Agar (PCA) - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Platelets (Thrombocytes) - Definition, Structure, Function

Pneumocystosis - Causative Agent, Treatment, Prevention

Pocket Microscope - Definition, Parts, Principle, Uses, Types

Poison Apparatus And The Biting Mechanism of Snakes

Polarizing Microscopes - Principle, Definition, Parts, Applications

Polio Virus - Structure, Genome, Replicationm, Pathogenesis

Pollen Under The Microscope

Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE)

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) - Definition, Steps, Principle, Application

Polymorphism in cnidarians

Polysaccharide - Definition, Types, Structure, Functions, Examples

Pond Water Under the Microscope

Population - Definition, Characteristics, Growth, Regulation, Types

Positive Displacement Pipette - Principle, Procedure, Applications, Advantages

Positive staining of Viruses - Principle, Procedure, Result

Post-glycolysis processes

Post-transcriptional Modification - Definition, Types, Process, Importance

Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) - Principle, Composition, Preparation, Uses

Pour Plate Method - Principle, Procedure, Objective, Result, Advantages

Poxviruses - Definition, Classification, Morphology, Life cycle

Prebiotics - Definition, Types, Sources, Mechanisms

Precipitation Reaction - Definition, Principle, Types

Predation - Definition, Types, Examples

Preparation of Crystal Violet for the Gram Stain

Preparation of Different pH Buffer

Preparation of Liquid Medium/broth

Preparation of Solid Media - Agar deep tubes, Agar Slants, Plates

Preparation Of Temporary Cotton Plugs and Permanent Cotton Plugs

Preservation and Spoilage of Canned Foods

Preservation and Spoilage of Sugars and Sugar Products

Preservation of Meat and Meat Products From Microbial Spoilage

Preservation of Milk and Milk Products From Microbial Spoilage

Preservation, and Spoilage of Meats and Meat Products

Preservation, and Spoilage of Milk and Milk Products

Preservation, and Spoilage of Poultry

Preservation, and Spoilage of Vegetables and Fruit

Primary and Secondary Immune Response

Primary Consumers - Definition, Importance, Examples

Primary Databases - Definition, Types, Examples, Applications

Primer - Definition, Primer Design, Types, Online Tools, Uses

Principles and aerodynamics of flight in Aves (bird) and Flight adaptations

Principles of Food Preservation

Prions: Definition, Structure, Function, Disease, Prevention, Control, Treatment, Transmission.

Probiotics - Definition, Mechanisms, Health Effects

Processes of Evolutionary Change

Producers - Definition, Types, Examples

Production Media - Definition, Characteristics, Examples, Uses

Production Strain - Screening, Development, Preservation, Preparation

Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell

Prokaryotic cells - Definition, Structure, Characteristics, Examples

Prokaryotic DNA Replication - Initiation, Elongation, Termination

Prokaryotic Ribosomes - Definition, Subunits, Function

Prometaphase - Definition, Stages, Importance

Prophase - Definition, Staining, Steps, Importance

Prophase I - Definition, Stages, Importance

Prophase II - Definition, Stages, Importance

Protein Databases - Definition, Types, Examples, Applications

Protein Purification Methods

Protein Synthesis (Translation)- Definition, Steps, Sites, Machinery

Protein Synthesis Inhibitors - Definition, Mechanism, Examples

Proteins - Structure, Properties, Type, Denaturation, Functions

Proteus - Overview

Protist Under Microscope

Protoplast Culture Methods

Protoplasts - Definition, Application and Protoplasts Culture

Protoplasts fusion - Somatic fusion

Protoplasts Isolation

Protozoa - Definition, Classification, Characteristics, Structure, Diseases, Examples

Protozoa - Definition, Occurrence, Ecology

Protozoa - Structure and Locomotor Organelles

PRP Centrifuge - Definition, Types, Parts, Applications

Pseudomonas aeruginosa - Habitat, Diagnosis, Pathogenesis, Treatment

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa on Macconkey Agar

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Under Microscope (Gram Staining)

Pseudopod - Definition, Types, Formation, Functions, Examples

Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium - Definition, Structure, Function, Types

Puberty - Definition, Importance, Changes in Male and Female

Publication of a Research Report

Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Protocol

Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) - Definition, Types, Steps, Applications

PYR Test (Pyrrolidonyl Arylamidase (PYR) test) - Principle, Procedure, Result

Pyramid of Biomass - Definition, Types, Examples

Pyrimidines and Purines Nucleotides - Structure, Occurrence and Properties

Pyronin Y (PY) Solution Preparation and Application

Pyruvate Broth Test Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Result

Python Programming Language in Bioinformatics


Quantitative Buffy Coat Test (QBC Test)

Questionnaires and Schedules


R Programming Language in Bioinformatics

Rabies Virus - Structure, Genome Organization, Pathogenesis, Replication

Radial Immunodiffusion - Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Radiation Sterilization - Types, Mechanism, Applications

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Test - Definition, Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses

Rapid Furfural Test for Glucose and Fructose

Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test - Principle, Procedure, Result, Applications

Raw Materials for Production Media

RCF Centrifugation and RPM Centrifugation

Real Time PCR (RT-PCR) - Definition, Principle, Protocol, Application, Advantages

Receptor - Definition, Structure, Types, Mechanism, Importance, Examples

Recombinant DNA - Definition, Formation, Applications, Examples

Recombinant DNA Technology - Steps, Application, Tools, and Limitations

Red Blood Cell - Morphology, Size, Shape, Color and Inclusion Bodies

Reflex Action - Definition, Types, Mechanism & Examples

Regeneration - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Examples

Regulation of Glycolysis

Reproduction In Protista and Life Cycle

Reproduction in Proto­zoa - Sexual reproduction, Asexual reproduction

Reproduction of Fungi - Sexual, Asexual and Vegetative Reproduction

Reproductive System - Development and Differentiation

Reproductive System of Earthworm

Reptilia - Definition, Characteristics, Classification

Research - Definition, Objectives, Components, Steps, Significance

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) - Definition, Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Respiratory System of Frog

Respiratory System of Vertebrata - Skin, Gills, Lungs and Air Sacs

Restriction Digest - Protocol, Principle, result

Restriction Enzyme (Restriction Endonuclease) - Definition, Types, Examples, Functions

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)

Reticulocyte Count - Principle, Procedure, Calculations and Clinical Significances

Retrogressive Metamorphosis in Urochordates

Reverse Blood Grouping - Principle, Procedure, Result

Reverse CAMP test Principle, Procedure, Result

Reverse transfection - Definition, Protocol, Applications

Reversed-Phase Chromatography - Principle, Protocol, Applications

Rh Blood Group System - Definition, Antigens, Antibody

Rhizopus microsporus - overview

Rhizopus nigricans - Life Cycle, Repoduction, Morphology, Pathogenesis

Rhizopus oligosporus - Overview

Rhizopus sporangia - Overview

Rhizopus spp - Structure, Life cycle, Habitat, Pathogenesis

Rhizopus stolonifer - Life Cycle, Habitat, Nutrition, Disease, Importance.

Rhizopus Under Microscope

Rhizosphere - Definition, Microflora, Structure, Importance

Ribosome - Types, Structure, Function, and Diagram

Ribozymes (RNA enzymes) - Definition, Structure, Function, Types

Rickettsia Infection - Transmission, Diagnosis, Pathogenesis, Treatment

Ring Precipitation Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

RNA - Definition, Structure, Types, Application

RNA Interference (RNAi) - Definition, Mechanism, Application

RNA Polymerase - Structure, Definition, Types, and Functions

RNA Splicing - Definition, Types, Mechanisms

Robertson’s Cooked Meat Medium (RCM Medium) - Composition, Preparation, Uses

Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis - Definition, Principle, Procedure, Result, Application

Role of ADH, Angiotensin and Aldosterone In Osmoregulation

Rolling Circle Replication -  Mechanism, Application

Romanowsky Stains - Principle, Types, Applications

Rotavirus - Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Rothera's test - Definition, Principle, Procedure, Result

Rotor Stator Homogenizers - Definition, Principle, Parts, Uses

Rough vs Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

rRNA - Structure, Definition, Types, Functions


Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) - Composition, Preparation, Principle, Uses, Results

Saccharomyces Life cycle, Morphology, Economic Importance.

Sahli’s Method For The Estimation Of Hemoglobin

Salmonella - Morphology, Antigenic structure, Cultural and Biochemical Characteristics

Salmonella Shigella Agar (SS Agar) - Principle, Composition, Application

Salmonella Under Microscope

Salmonellosis - Food Infection and Food Poisoning by Salmonella

Salt Meat Broth

Salt Tolerance Test - Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Result

Sample Preparation and composition

Sampling of Bacteria From Air

Sampling of Bacteria From Air

Sampling of Bacteria From Water

Sampling of Microorganisms From Soil

Sandwich (Davson–Danielli) model of cell membrane

Sandwich ELISA - Definition, Principle, Steps, Advantages

Saprophytes - Definition, Types, Characteristics, Nutritions, Examples

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): Transmission, pathogenesis, replication

Satellitism Test - Principle, Procedure, Result, Applications

Scanning Electron Microscope: Definition, Parts, Application, Principle, Advantages

Schistosoma haematobium - Life cycle, pathogenicity and prophylaxis

Schistosomiasis - Life cycle, Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention.

Schizosaccharomyces: Morphology, Reproduction, life cycle

Scientific Method - Dfinition, Steps, Examples, Importance

Scope of Epidemiology

Scope of Microbiology

Scope of Microbiology in Nursing

Scope of Zoology

SDS-PAGE - Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE)

Seafood Toxins and Fish & Shellfish Poisoning

Secondary Consumers - Definition, Types, Functions, Examples

Secondary Databases - Definition, Types, Examples, Uses

Secretion - Definition, Mechanism, Importance

Secretory Vesicles - Definition, Structure, Functions, and Diagram

Selenite F Broth - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Seliwanoff's Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Semiconservative Replication of DNA - Mechanism

Sensory Receptors - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Functions

Sequence Alignment - Definition, Types, Tools, Applications

Serial Dilution Method - Definition, Procedure, Application

Serratia marcescens - Overview

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV)

Sewage Treatment - Wastewater Treatment Procedure

Sexual Behaviour - Definition, Types, Factors

Sheep blood agar - Composition, Principle, Procedure, Uses.

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

shRNA (Short-hairpin RNA) Structure, Definition, Mechanism

Signal Transduction Pathway - Definition, Types, Functions, Examples

Silent Mutation - Definition, Causes, Mehcanism, Examples, Applications

Silver Staining - Principle, Procedure, Applications

Simmons Citrate Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Simmons citrate agar test - Procedure, Principle, Result, Example.

Simple columnar epithelium - definition, structure, functions, examples

Simple Diffusion - definition, principle, examples, applications

Simple Microscope: Working Principle, Uses, Parts, and their Functions.

Simple Staining - Procedure, Principle, Result

Single Cell Protein (SCP) – Definition, Sources, Production, Uses

Single Pan or Unequal Arm Mechanical Balance

Single Use Bioreactor - Principle, Parts, Types, Uses

siRNA (Small Interfering RNA) - Structure, Mechanism, Functions

Skeletal System - Definition, Types, Anatomy, Functions

Sludge Wastes Treatment - Methods, Types, Factors, Uses

Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) - Structure, Types, Definition

Smooth Muscle - Definition, Structure, Mechanism, Functions

Soil Biology - Definition, Types, Proterties, Importance

Soil Formation (Pedogenesis)- Definition, Factors, Process, Steps, Examples

Soil Microorganisms - Types, Examples, Factors, Importance 

Soil profile and Soil Horizon - Definition, Types, Importance

Solid State Fermentation (SSF) - Definition, Steps, Bioreactor, Applications

Solid Waste Management

Solubility Tests of Proteins - Principle, Procedure, Result, Application

Solution and Cell/Culture/Growth Media Preparations

Sorbitol MacConkey Agar - Composition, Preparation and Uses

SOS Repair - SOS Response in Bacteria

Southern Blotting Definition, Principle, Steps, Importance

Spectrometer vs Spectrophotometer

Spectrophotometer - Principle, Parts, Types, Mechanism, Uses

Spectrophotometer Cuvette - Features, Types, Materials, Precautions, Advantages

Sphaeroplasts - Definition, Formation, Applications

Sphagnum - Habit, characteristics, structure, reproduction

Sphingolipid – Definition, Structure, Types, Functions

Spinal Cord - Definition, Structure, Functions

Spindle Fibers - Definition, Types, Structure, Formation, Functions

Spirochete - Definition, Morphology, Diseases

Spirogyra - Definition, Structure, Life Cycle, Diagram, Reproduction

Spleen - Definition, Location, Structure and Functions

Spliceosome - Definition, Types, Structure, Mechanism

Spoilage and Defects of Fermented Dairy Products 

Spoilage of Chocolate and Its Preservation

Spoilage of Confectionery and Its Preservation

Spoilage of Eggs - Contamination, Preservation Steps

Spontaneous Generation - Definition, Experiments, Importance

Sporangium - Definition, Characteristics, Structure, Importance

Sporothrix schenckii - Morphology, Pathogenesis, Transmission

Sporozoa - Definition, Examples, Classification and Characteristics

Spot Indole Test - Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Spread‌ ‌Plate‌ ‌Method‌ - Procedure, Principle, Purpose, Result.

SSC (Northern Blot, 20x) and SSPE (Blot, 20x, pH 7.4) Preparation and Recipe

Stage Micrometer - Definition, Principle, Parts, Procedure, Applications

Stages in Chick Embryo Development

Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) - Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins

Staphylococcus aureus

Starch Casein Agar (SCA) - Composition, Principle, Preparation

Starch Hydrolysis Test - Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses

Starter Culture - Definition, Types, Preparation, and Applications

Starter Cultures - Preparation, Maintenance and Preservation

Stem cell - Definition, Types, Application, Advantages

Stem cell culture - Definition, Types, Application, Preparation

Stereoisomerism - Definition, Types, Structure, Functions

Stokes Disc Diffusion Method - Principle, Procedure, Result.

Stomata Under Microscope - Temporary Mount Technique

Storage Granules - Definition, Structure, Functions

Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

Stratified squamous epithelium - Function, Definition, Location, Types.

Streak Plate Method - Patterns, Procedure, Principle

Streptococcus pneumoniae - Habitat, Morphology, Genomes

Streptococcus Selective Agar - Composition, Preparation, and Principle

Stroma in chloroplast and Stroma in Animal Tissue

Strongyloides stercoralis (Parasitic Roundworm)

Structural Isomer - Definition, Types, Examples

Structure and Function of Ecosystems - Definition, Types

Structure and Genome of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) with diagram

Structure of Gram-negative cell wall

Structure of Gram-positive cell wall

Study of Aspergillus by using Temporary Mount Technique

Study of biting and chewing, and piercing and sucking type of mouth parts

Study of Chlamydomonas and Volvox by using Whole mount

Study of larval forms In Protochordates

Study of Penicillium using Temporary Mount

Study of Rhizopus by using Temporary Mount.

Subculturing technique for Broth Culture

Subculturing Technique In Agar Slant/Agar Plate

Submandibular Gland - Definition, Structure, Functions

Sucrose Gradient Centrifugation

Sudan Black B Staining - Principle, Procedure, Applications

Sulfur Reduction Test - Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Result

Sulphosalicylic Acid Test for Proteinuria - Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Sulphur cycle - Definition, Steps, Types, Importance

Superantigens (SAgs) - Definition, Structure, Examples

SXT Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Sycon - Anatomy, Diagram, Habitat, Nutrition, Reproduction

Symbiosis - Definition, Types, Examples

Synapse - Definition, Parts, Types & Function

Synchronous Culture - Definition, Methods, Application.

Synthesis of Fatty Acid


T cell (T Lymphocyte) - Definition, Structure, Types, Development, Functions

T Dependent Antigen and T Independent Antigen

Taenia solium - Structure, Reproduction, Life Cycle, Characteristics

Taproot vs Fibrous root - Difference between Taproot and Fibrous root 

TaqMan Probe - Definition, Principle, Applications

Tautomer (Tautomerism) - Definition, Types, Example, Applications

Taxonomy - Definition, Hierarchy, Example, Importance

TCBS Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Telophase - Definition, Mechanism, Significance

Temporary Dry Mount Slides Preparation Procedure

Temporary Wet Mount (TWM) technique for observation of Living Organisms.

Teratogenesis - Definition, Factors, Mechanism

Terrestrial Ecosystem - Definition, Types, Examples

Testing of Disinfectants (evaluation methods of disinfectants)

Thallus Organisation in Algae

The Complement Pathway - Activation, Functions, and Deficiencies.

The Earth BioGenome Project (EBP)

The Glyoxylate Cycle - Definition, Steps, Functions.

The Human Genome Project - An Overview

The Michaelis–Menten Model and its Plot, Equation, Importance

The most lethal viruses of all Time

The progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection throughout the respiratory system

The Wobble Hypothesis - Definition, Exaplanation, Importance

Thermodynamics - Definition, Types, 1st, 2nd, 3rd Law

Theta Model of Replication - Definition, Mechanism

Thick and Thin Blood Smear for Malaria Diagnosis

Thin Layer Chromatography - Principle, Components, Procedure, Application

Thioglycollate Broth - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Thymus Gland - Definition, Structure, Location, Hormones, Functions

Tissue Homogenizer - Definition, Parts, Types, Procedure

Tollens’ Test Definition, Principle, Procedure, Result, Application.

Toluidine blue stain of Mast Cell

Tonicity - Definition, Types, Examples

Toolmakers Microscope - Principle, Procedure, Parts, Applications

Tools and Techniques Used in Research

Top 10 Difference Between Monera, Protista, Fungi, Animalia, Plantae

Top 11 Books for Cell Biology

Top 13 Lab Techniques You Must Know

Top 14 books for Industrial Microbiology

Top 14 Difference Between Monera and Protista

Top 15 Books for Food and diary Microbiology

Top 15 Books for Molecular Biology

Top 16 Infectious and Deadliest Diseases Caused By Bacteria

Top 17 Books for Genetics

Top 18 books for Environmental Microbiology

Top 22 Difference Between Bacteria and Virus

Top 30 Differences Between Bacteria, Archae, and Eukarya.

Top 6 Books For Biofertilizers and Biopesticides

Top 6 Books on Microbial Physiology and Metabolism

Top 8 AI Generated Picture of Microscope

Top and Best Books for Microbiology

Top and Best Books on Virology

Top Biotech Companies of India

Top M.Sc in Microbiology (Private and Government) colleges in West Bengal (Wb)

Top Universities in West Bengal Offering Microbiology

Topoisomerase - Definition, Structure, Types, Functions, Mechanism

Torovirus - Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Total Red Blood Cell (RBC) Count – Procedure, Principle, result

Total White Blood Cell (WBC) Count - Total Leucocyte Count (TLC)

Toxigenic Fungi And Fungal Mycotoxins In Food

Traditional Indian Fermented Foods 

Transcription In Prokaryotes - Definition, Stages, Significance

Transfection - Definition, Types, Principle, Applications

Transfection PEI (Polyethylenimine) Protocol

Transfection Protocols - Principle, Protocol, Uses

Transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) - Definition, Structure, Properties

Transgenic Plants - Examples, Definition, Procedure, Application

Transitional epithelium - Definition, Structure, Function, Location, and Example

Translation In Eukaryotes - Protein synthesis in Eukaryotic

Translational regulation - Definition, Mechanism

Translocation in Prokaryotes - Components, Steps, Enzymes, Sites

Transmission Electron Microscope - Definition, Parts, Working Principle, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages

Transmission of Diseases

Transplantation - Definition, Types, Examples

Transport Media - Definition, Types, Principle, Uses, Examples

Transposable elements - Definition, Types, Examples, Application

Transposition - Definition, Types, Mechanism

Treponema Pallidum - Definition, Structure, Transmission, Pathogenesis, Treatment

Trichomes Under Microscope

Trichonympha Under Microscope

Trichophyton spp - Morphology, Life cycle, Pathogenesis

Trinocular Microscope - Definition, Principle, Parts, Protocol, Uses

Triosephosphate Isomerase - Definition, Structure, Mechanism, Functions

Triple Beam Balance - Parts, Procedure, Uses

Triple Sugar Iron (TSI) - Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Triple Sugar Iron (TSI) Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Tris-SDS Buffer Preparation of pH 6.8 and 8.8 for SDS PAGE

tRNA - Structure, Definition, Functions, Types

Tropism - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Examples, Importance

Trypanosoma gambiense - Life Cycle, Pathogenesis, Prophylaxis, Structure, Treatment

Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Tryptone Soya Broth for the enrichment of Staph. aureus

Tryptophan (Trp) Operon -  Repressible operon

Tumor - Types, Tumor Antigens, Risk Factors

Tumor Antigen

Tumor Immunology - Definition, features

Turgor Pressure - Definition, Mechanism, Functions

Turgor Pressure - Definition, Mechanism, Functions

Two Pan or Equal Arm Analytical Balance

Two-Dimensional (Crossed) lmmunoelectrophoresis (2D)

Type 1 (Anaphylactic) Hypersensitivity Reaction - Definition, Mechanism, Examples

Type 1 Diabetes vs Type 2 Diabetes

Type II (Cytotoxic) Hypersensitivity - Definition, Mechanism, Examples

Type III Hypersensitivity - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Examples

Type IV or Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH)

Types of Blood Collection Tubes and Their uses

Types of Cells - Definition, Examples, Importance

Types of Centrifuge - Definition, Principle, and Applications

Types of Centrifuges

Types of Chromatography - Classification of Chromatography

Types of Chromatography - Definition, Principle, Steps, Uses

Types of Crystals in Urine - Causes, Factors, Identification

Types of Eggs and Egg Membranes

Types of Immunoelectrophoresis 

Types of Immunoelectrophoresis 

Types of Microorganisms In Pond Water

Types of Microscopes With Definitions, Principle, Uses, Labeled Diagrams

Types of Plant Cell

Types of Research

Types of RNA with Structure and Functions

Types of Spectroscopy with Definition, Principle, Steps, Uses

Types of Staining Techniques

Types of Stains used in Microbiology

Types of Vaccines With Examples


Ultra structure of skeletal muscle - Definition, Functions

Ultracentrifuge Definition, Principle, Types, Uses

Ultrasonic Homogenizer - Principle, Parts, Types, Uses

Unicellular organism - Definition, Types, Importance, Examples

Urea Cycle - Steps, Reactions, Enzymes, Products, Regulation

Urease Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Urethra -Definition, Structure, Paint, Treatment, Functions

Urinary System - Definition, Anatomy and Physiology

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) - Pathogenesis, Treatments, Diagnosis, Prevention

Urochordata - Definition, Characteristics, and Classification

Uronic Acid Pathway - Definition, Enzymes, Steps, Importance

USB Microscope - Principle, Definition, Parts, Examples, Uses

UV Spectroscopy - Principle, Instruments, Applications

UV-Vis Spectroscopy - Principle, Instrumentation, Applications, Advantages, and Limitation


Vaccines - Definition, Development, Mechanism, Types, Examples, Side Effects

Vacuole Staining - Observation of Vacuoles under Microscope

Vacuoles - Definition, Structure, Types, Functions, and Diagram

Varicella Zoster Virus - Definition, Structure, Genome, Replication

Vector - Definition, Examples, Characteristics, Types, Applications, Limitations

Vegetative Propagation - Definition, Types, Methods, Advantages

Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) Test

Vertebra - Definition, Structure, Development

Vertebrata – Definition, Classification, Characteristics, Features

Vertical Zonation - Definition, Types, Causes, Factors, Examples

Vesicles - Definition, Structure, Types, and Functions

Viability Staining Method For Bacteria

Vibrio cholerae Food Poisoning - Cholera toxin (CT)

Vibrio cholerae Food Poisoning - Cholera toxin (CT)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus Food Poisoning - Gastroenteritis

Viral Entry Into The Host Body

Viral Life Cycle - Steps of Viral Infection

Viral Pathogenesis Definition, Mechanisms, Factors

Viral Replication Cycle - Definition, Steps, Mechanisms

Viral Spread and Organ Invasion of Virus

Viral Transport Media (VTM) - Definition, Principle, Preparation, Application

Viroids Definition, Infection, Structure, Examples, Diagnostic, Origin, Disease.

Virus Cultivation - Definition, Methods, Importance

Virus Structure and Application, Origin, Definition, Characters, and Example.

Vitamin A - Structure, Functions, Properties, Source and deficiency

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) - Structure, Properties, Functions, Deficiency

Vitamin B12 Production

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) - Structure, Properties, Functions, Deficiency

Vitamin D - Structure, Functions, Synthesis, Mechanism, Deficiency

Vitamin E - Structure, Functions, Synthesis, Deficiency

Vitamin K - Structure, Properties, Biological roles and Deficiency

Vitamins - Classification, Source, Importance, Example

Voges Proskauer (VP) Test - Principle, Procedure, Results

Volvox - Definition, Characterisitcs, Structure, Reproduction

Volvox Under Microscope

Vortex Mixer - Definition, Principle, Parts, Uses

VRBA(Violet Red Bile Agar) - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses


Waste Source, Definition, Types, Impacts

Water Distiller - Working Principle, Parts, Types, Uses

Watson and Crick DNA Model

Wave Bioreactor - Principle, Parts, Types, Uses

West Nile Virus (WNV) - Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis, Treatment

Western Blot - Protocol, Principle, Result.

What are Immune Booster Foods?

What are Telomeres and Telomerases?

What are the Branches of zoology?

What are the Pathotypes of E. coli? - ETEC, EPEC, EHEC, EAEC, EIEC, DAEC

What is Algae? Characteristics and Occurrence of Algae.

What is bacteria? Types, Structure, Shapes, Morphology, Nutrition, Growth, Habitat, Reproduction, Examples.

What is Developmental Biology?

What is Dihybrid Cross? Examples, Steps, Importance

What is DNA Replication? - An In-Depth Guide to DNA Replication for Students

What is Entropy?

What is Ergonomic Pipetting?

What is Gene Expression? - Definition, Stages, Importance

What is Genomics?

What is Induced Fit Model? - Mechanism, Advantages, Limitations

What is Lock and Key Model? - Mechanism, Advantages, Limitations

What is Phycology?

What is the Difference Between Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes

What is the Difference Between Cloaca and Anus?

What is the Difference Between Ebola and Zika

What is the Difference Between Holobasidium and Phragmobasidium?

What is the Difference Between Neisseria Gonorrhoeae and Neisseria Meningitidis

What is the Difference between YAC and BAC Vectors?

What is Toxigenic Algae And Algal Food Poisoning?

What is Viral Immunology?

What is Visceral Arches?

Wheatley Trichrome Staining - Principle, Procedure, Uses

Which Factors affects Immunogenicity? - Factors affecting Immunogenicity

White Blood Cell (Leukocytes) - Definition, Types, Structure, Functions

Whittaker's Five Kingdom Classification - Criteria, Advantages and Limitations

Widal Test - Principle, Procedure, Result, Advantages, Limitation

Wine Production

Working Distance - Definition, Measurement, Types, Importance

Wright Giemsa Stain - Protocol, Principle, Result.

Wright Stain - Principle, Procedure, Result


X and V factor Test - Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Result

X-Ray Crystallography

X-Ray Spectroscopy - Principle, Instrumentation, Steps and Applications

Xanthoproteic test - Principle, Procedure, Result, Application

Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) Agar - Composition, Preparation, Principle, Uses


Yeast - Structure, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Uses

Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs) - Definition, Structure, Construction, Uses

Yeast Under the Microscope

Yeasts Starter Cultures  

YEPD Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Yersinia enterocolitica Food Poisoning - Yersiniosis

Yersinia Pestis - Definition, Structure, Genome, Transmission, Pathogenesis, Treatment

Yersinia Selective Agar - Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses


Ziehl-Neelsen Staining (ZN Staining) - Principle and Procedure, Result

Zika Virus (ZIKV) - Definition, Structure, Genome, Replication, Transmission

Zonation - Definition, Types, Importance, Example

Zoogeographical Realms - Definition, Meaning and Types

Zoogeography - Plate tectonic and Continental drift theory

Zoogeography - Realms, Theories pertaining to distribution of animals

Zooplankton - Definition, Characteristics, Types, Importance

Zwitterion - Definition, Structure, Examples

Zygomycosis (Mucormycosis) - Causative Agent, Symptoms, Prevention, Treatment

Zygomycota Overview

Zygote - Definition, Formation, Development, Example

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