Human Brain – Definition, Structure, Characteristics, Functions

What is Human Brain?

  • The human brain is a remarkable organ that serves as the control center of the nervous system. Together with the spinal cord, it forms the central nervous system (CNS). The brain is responsible for a wide range of functions, including cognition, memory, emotions, sensory perception, motor skills, and the regulation of bodily processes.
  • The brain is protected by the skull, and it consists of several main components: the cerebrum, the brainstem, and the cerebellum. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and is divided into two cerebral hemispheres. Each hemisphere has an inner core of white matter and an outer layer called the cerebral cortex, which is composed of grey matter. The cortex plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions, such as language, reasoning, and decision-making.
  • The brainstem connects the cerebrum to the spinal cord and is made up of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. It controls basic functions like breathing, heart rate, and digestion. The cerebellum, located at the back of the brain, is responsible for coordinating movement, balance, and posture.
  • Within the brain, there are various structures that play vital roles in different functions. For example, the thalamus acts as a relay station for sensory information, while the hypothalamus regulates essential processes like body temperature, hunger, and thirst. The limbic system, including the amygdala and hippocampus, is involved in memory, emotions, and motivation. The basal ganglia are associated with motor control and the coordination of movement.
  • The brain is composed of billions of cells, including neurons and glial cells. Neurons are the primary functional units of the brain and communicate with each other through electrical and chemical signals. Glial cells provide support and nourishment to neurons.
  • Although the brain is protected by the skull and surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid, it can still be vulnerable to various diseases, injuries, and disorders. Conditions like stroke, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s), brain tumors, and psychiatric disorders can affect brain function and overall well-being.
  • The study of the brain is a vast field known as neuroscience. Scientists use various techniques, including imaging technologies like MRI and CT scans, to study the structure and function of the brain. Understanding the brain’s anatomy and how it functions is crucial for advancing our knowledge of cognition, behavior, and mental health.
  • In summary, the human brain is an incredibly complex and intricate organ that governs our thoughts, actions, and bodily functions. It is responsible for our consciousness, perception, and the ability to interact with the world around us. Ongoing research continues to unravel the mysteries of this extraordinary organ and its impact on our lives.

Definition of Brain

The brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, responsible for processing information, controlling bodily functions, and facilitating cognition, emotions, and behaviors.

Characterisitcs Features of Human Brain

The human brain possesses several characteristic features that contribute to its complexity and functionality. Here are some key characteristics of the human brain:

  1. Complexity: The human brain is an incredibly complex organ, consisting of billions of neurons (nerve cells) and trillions of connections between them. It has intricate structures and networks that allow for various functions such as perception, cognition, memory, and control of bodily functions.
  2. Cerebral Cortex: The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of the brain and is responsible for higher-order cognitive processes. It is highly convoluted, forming numerous folds and ridges called gyri and sulci, respectively. This folding increases the surface area of the cortex, allowing for more neurons and enhancing its processing capabilities.
  3. Hemispheric Specialization: The human brain exhibits hemispheric specialization, meaning that different functions are primarily localized in specific hemispheres. The left hemisphere is typically associated with language, speech, and logical reasoning, while the right hemisphere is involved in spatial awareness, creativity, and visual-motor coordination.
  4. Plasticity: The human brain exhibits a remarkable ability to adapt and change throughout life, known as neuroplasticity. It can reorganize neural connections, form new synapses, and modify its structure and function in response to learning, experiences, and environmental factors. Neuroplasticity underlies learning, memory formation, and recovery from brain injuries.
  5. White and Gray Matter: The brain is composed of white and gray matter. Gray matter consists of densely packed neuronal cell bodies, while white matter contains myelinated axons, which appear white due to the fatty substance myelin sheath. White matter facilitates communication between different brain regions, while gray matter is involved in information processing and computation.
  6. Subcortical Structures: Alongside the cerebral cortex, the human brain contains various subcortical structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and brainstem. These structures play crucial roles in functions such as sensory processing, emotional regulation, memory formation, motor control, and homeostasis.
  7. Synaptic Plasticity: Synapses, the connections between neurons, are essential for information transmission in the brain. The strength and efficiency of synaptic connections can be modified through synaptic plasticity, allowing for learning, memory storage, and adaptive changes in neural circuits.
  8. Energy Demand: The human brain is highly energy-demanding, representing only 2% of the body’s weight but consuming approximately 20% of its total energy. This high energy requirement is necessary to support its extensive neural activity and maintain its metabolic functions.

These are just a few of the characteristic features of the human brain. Its complexity, plasticity, organization, and energy demands contribute to the incredible cognitive abilities and adaptability that define human brain function.

Cells of the Human brain

The human brain is comprised of two main types of cells: nerve cells, also known as neurons, and glial cells, also referred to as neuroglia or glia. Let’s explore the characteristics and functions of these cells based on the provided information:

1. Nerve Cells (Neurons)

Neurons are the fundamental building blocks of the nervous system. They vary in shape and size but share common structural components, including a cell body, dendrites, and an axon. Neurons transmit information through electrical and chemical signals. The transmission of information occurs at specialized junctions called synapses, where signals are relayed from one neuron to another. Dendrites receive messages from other nerve cells, acting as antennae to pick up signals. Chemical messengers called neurotransmitters cross the synapse and bind to specific receptors on the receiving neuron, stimulating it to transmit the message.

2. Glial Cells

Glial cells, or neuroglia, are non-neuronal cells that support and interact with neurons. There are approximately 10-50 times more glial cells than neurons in the brain. Glial cells play various essential roles, including nourishing neurons, providing structural support, and contributing to the protection of neurons.

Types of Glial Cells:

  • a. Astroglia or Astrocytes: These glial cells are often referred to as nurse cells due to their supportive functions. Astrocytes regulate the blood-brain barrier, which allows essential nutrients to reach neurons while restricting potentially harmful substances. They also play a role in maintaining homeostasis and have an impact on electrical impulses. Astrocytes are involved in the defense and repair of neurons in response to injury or disease.
  • b. Oligodendroglia: These cells produce a fatty substance called myelin, which wraps around the axons of neurons. Myelin acts as an insulating layer, facilitating the rapid conduction of electrical impulses along the axon. Oligodendroglia cells are primarily found in the central nervous system.
  • c. Ependymal Cells: These cells line the ventricles of the brain and are involved in the production and secretion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF helps cushion and protect the brain, as well as provide a pathway for the exchange of nutrients and waste products.
  • d. Microglia: Microglia are the immune cells of the brain. They act as macrophages, patrolling the brain to detect and eliminate pathogens, as well as clean up cellular debris. Microglia play a crucial role in the brain’s defense mechanisms and are involved in the immune response within the central nervous system.

In summary, the human brain consists of nerve cells (neurons) and glial cells (neuroglia). Neurons transmit electrical and chemical signals to facilitate communication, while glial cells provide support, nourishment, protection, and immune functions in the brain. The different types of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendroglia, ependymal cells, and microglia, contribute to the overall functioning and health of the nervous system.

How is the brain protected in the body?

The brain, being a critical organ, is protected within the body through several mechanisms. Here’s an explanation based on the provided information:

  1. Skull: The brain is housed within the skull, which provides a sturdy and protective bony enclosure. The skull acts as a physical barrier, shielding the brain from external forces and trauma. It helps to prevent direct impact and injury to the delicate brain tissue.
  2. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF): The brain is surrounded and cushioned by a layer of fluid called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF is a transparent, watery substance that fills the ventricles, which are the fluid-filled cavities within the brain. The CSF acts as a protective cushion, absorbing and distributing mechanical shocks and jolts that may occur during movements or sudden changes in body position.
  3. Choroid Plexus: The choroid plexus is a specialized structure located within each ventricle of the brain. It plays a crucial role in the production of cerebrospinal fluid. The choroid plexus produces a significant portion of the CSF, which circulates around the brain and spinal cord. This fluid not only acts as a cushion but also provides necessary nutrients and oxygen to the brain, aiding in its nourishment and overall function.
  4. Minor Immunological Functions: The CSF, in addition to its protective and nutritive roles, also contributes to minor immunological functions. It helps maintain the brain’s immune environment, providing a defense mechanism against certain pathogens and foreign substances. While the immune function of CSF is relatively modest compared to other immune systems in the body, it still plays a part in protecting the brain from potential infections.

In summary, the brain is protected within the body through various mechanisms. The skull provides physical protection by enclosing the brain, while the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acts as a cushion, absorbing shocks and distributing forces. The production of CSF by the choroid plexus ensures a continuous supply of fluid to nourish the brain and contributes to minor immunological functions. Together, these protective mechanisms help safeguard the brain from mechanical trauma and maintain its proper functioning within the body.

Structure of Brain

  • The structure of the brain is an intricate and fascinating system that governs our thoughts, emotions, and actions. It is a remarkably complex organ composed of various regions and structures, each with its own unique functions and characteristics.
  • The largest part of the brain is the cerebrum, which consists of two cerebral hemispheres. This portion of the brain is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as perception, memory, language, and problem-solving. The cerebral hemispheres are covered by a layer of grey matter known as the cerebral cortex, which contains different cortical layers of neurons. The cortex is divided into four main lobes: the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, and occipital lobe. These lobes contribute to specific functions and processes within the brain, such as motor control, sensory perception, auditory processing, visual processing, and language comprehension.
  • In addition to the four main lobes, some sources also recognize three other lobes: the central lobe, limbic lobe, and insular lobe. The central lobe includes the precentral gyrus and the postcentral gyrus, which play a distinct role in motor control and sensory processing. The limbic lobe is involved in regulating emotions, memory formation, and the sense of smell. The insular lobe is associated with various functions, including self-awareness, empathy, and social emotions.
  • Connecting the cerebrum to the rest of the body is the brainstem, which resembles a stalk and includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brainstem plays a vital role in controlling essential bodily functions such as breathing, heart rate, and digestion. It also serves as a conduit for sensory and motor signals traveling between the brain and the spinal cord.
  • Behind the brainstem lies the cerebellum, often referred to as the “little brain.” Although it is smaller in size compared to the cerebrum, the cerebellum is crucial for coordinating movement, balance, and posture. It receives sensory information from various parts of the body and helps fine-tune motor commands, allowing for smooth and precise movements.
  • The brain, brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord are protected by four membranes known as meninges. These membranes consist of the tough dura mater, the middle arachnoid mater, and the delicate inner pia mater. The space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater is filled with cerebrospinal fluid, which acts as a cushioning and nourishing medium for the brain. The outermost membrane of the cerebral cortex, called the glia limitans, forms part of the blood-brain barrier, a protective mechanism that regulates the passage of substances between the bloodstream and the brain.
  • The brain’s composition is a delicate balance of grey matter and white matter. The grey matter consists of the cortical layers of neurons found in the cerebral cortex, responsible for information processing and integration. The white matter, located deeper within the brain, primarily comprises myelinated axons that form connections between different regions. These axonal connections facilitate communication and the transmission of signals throughout the brain.
  • In conclusion, the structure of the brain is a remarkable marvel of nature. Its various regions and structures work in harmony to support our cognitive abilities, regulate bodily functions, and enable complex behaviors. Understanding the intricacies of the brain’s structure is crucial for unraveling the mysteries of human consciousness and advancing our knowledge of neuroscience.


  • The cerebrum is the largest and most prominent part of the brain, located in the front of the brain. It consists of gray matter, known as the cerebral cortex, which covers the outer surface, and white matter at its core. The cerebrum plays a crucial role in initiating and coordinating movement, regulating temperature, and controlling various cognitive functions.
  • The cerebral cortex, often referred to as the cortex, is the outer layer of the cerebrum. It is named after the Latin word “cortex,” meaning “bark,” due to its resemblance to the bark of a tree. The cortex is highly folded, which increases its surface area, and it comprises about half of the brain’s weight. It is divided into two nearly symmetrical hemispheres, the left and right hemispheres, which are connected by a large structure called the corpus callosum.
  • Each hemisphere of the cerebrum can be further divided into four lobes: the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, and occipital lobe. These lobes are responsible for specialized functions. The frontal lobe is involved in speech, judgment, thinking, reasoning, problem-solving, and emotions. The parietal lobe helps with sensory perception, spatial awareness, and interpreting pain and touch. The temporal lobe is associated with memory, learning, language processing, and some aspects of hearing and smell. The occipital lobe is primarily responsible for vision.
  • Beneath the cerebral cortex lies the cerebral white matter, which consists of myelinated axons. These axons facilitate communication between different regions of the brain, allowing for coordinated function.
  • Within the cerebrum, there are also important structures and regions. The ventricles, located deep within the brain, produce and circulate cerebrospinal fluid, which surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord. The septum pellucidum is a membrane that separates the lateral ventricles. The thalamus, positioned below the ventricles, acts as a relay center for sensory information, directing it to the appropriate areas of the cortex. The hypothalamus, located in front and below the thalamus, plays a crucial role in regulating hormones and various bodily functions. It is connected to the pituitary gland, which controls the endocrine system.
  • Deep within the hemispheres of the cerebrum, there are additional structures. The basal ganglia, including the striatum and the claustrum, are involved in behavior and movement regulation. The basal forebrain structures, such as the nucleus basalis and medial septal nucleus, produce the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is important for cognitive processes.
  • In summary, the cerebrum is the largest part of the brain, responsible for initiating and coordinating movement, regulating temperature, and controlling a wide range of cognitive functions. Its cerebral cortex, lobes, and interconnected structures allow for complex cognitive processes such as perception, memory, language, and decision-making. The cerebrum’s organization and functioning are essential for human cognition and behavior.

Functions of cerebrum

The cerebrum, the largest part of the brain, is responsible for a wide range of functions, including conscious or voluntary motor functions, sensory processing, and language. Let’s explore the functions of the cerebrum based on the provided information:

  1. Voluntary Motor Functions: The cerebrum, particularly the primary motor cortex and other frontal lobe motor areas, plays a crucial role in initiating and directing conscious or voluntary motor functions. It is in these areas that actions are planned and coordinated. The upper motor neurons in the primary motor cortex send their axons to the lower motor neurons, which innervate the muscles, via synapses in the brain stem and spinal cord. Damage to the motor areas of the cortex, as seen in certain forms of motor neuron disease, can result in a loss of muscle strength and accuracy without complete paralysis.
  2. Olfactory Sensory Processing: The olfactory system, responsible for the sense of smell, has a unique pathway in the brain. Axons from the olfactory bulb, where olfactory receptors are located, project directly to the olfactory cortex without passing through the thalamus like other sensory systems. The olfactory bulb also receives input from various brain areas, including the amygdala, neocortex, hippocampus, locus coeruleus, and substantia nigra. This “top-down” knowledge influences the olfactory bulb’s functions, which include distinguishing between odors, improving odor detection sensitivity, filtering out background odors, and allowing higher brain areas involved in arousal and attention to modulate odor detection or discrimination.
  3. Speech and Language: Sections of the cerebral cortex are closely associated with speech and language functions. In the frontal lobe, the motor portions of language are attributed to Broca’s area. This area is responsible for the production of speech. On the other hand, Wernicke’s area, located at the temporal-parietal lobe junction, is involved in speech comprehension. Damage to Broca’s area can lead to a condition known as verbal aphasia or non-fluent aphasia, which is characterized by difficulty in producing fluent speech. Damage to Wernicke’s area results in receptive aphasia, where individuals have difficulty understanding and processing language.

The cerebrum’s functions extend beyond these examples, encompassing a wide range of cognitive processes, sensory integration, memory, and higher-order thinking. As the center of conscious thought and executive functions, the cerebrum plays a fundamental role in our ability to perceive, process information, and engage in complex behaviors.


  • The cerebellum, located at the back of the cranial cavity, is an important structure involved in motor coordination and balance. It can be divided into three main lobes: the anterior lobe, the posterior lobe, and the flocculonodular lobe. The anterior and posterior lobes are connected by a structure called the vermis.
  • Compared to the cerebral cortex, the outer cortex of the cerebellum is much thinner and characterized by numerous curved transverse fissures, giving it a unique appearance. When viewed from underneath, the flocculonodular lobe can be observed between the two lobes.
  • The cerebellum is connected to the brainstem through three pairs of nerve tracts known as cerebellar peduncles. The superior pair connects to the midbrain, the middle pair connects to the medulla, and the inferior pair connects to the pons.
  • Structurally, the cerebellum consists of an inner medulla composed of white matter and an outer cortex made up of densely folded grey matter. The anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellum are thought to play a significant role in coordinating and smoothing complex motor movements. On the other hand, the flocculonodular lobe is primarily involved in maintaining balance. However, there is ongoing debate regarding the cognitive, behavioral, and motor functions of the cerebellum.
  • Overall, the cerebellum is a distinct structure within the brain that contributes to motor coordination and balance. Its unique lobes and connections to the brainstem highlight its vital role in facilitating smooth and precise movements. Further research is necessary to fully understand the complete range of functions performed by the cerebellum.
Cerebral Cortex
Cerebral Cortex | Image Source:

Functions of cerebellum

The cerebellum, a region located at the back of the brain, serves several important functions in the human body. While it is primarily known for its role in motor regulation, it also contributes to other cognitive functions. Let’s explore the various functions of the cerebellum:

  1. Balance and Posture Management: The cerebellum plays a crucial role in maintaining balance and coordinating posture. It receives feedback from vestibular receptors (which sense changes in head position and movement) and proprioceptors (which provide information about the position of muscles and joints). With this sensory input, the cerebellum modulates commands to motor neurons, enabling adjustments in body position and compensating for changes in muscle load. Individuals with cerebellar injuries often experience balance problems and may adopt compensatory postural strategies, such as a broad-based stance, to overcome these difficulties.
  2. Voluntary Movement Synchronization: Smooth and coordinated movements require the precise synchronization of different muscle groups. The cerebellum is responsible for coordinating the timing and force of muscle contractions, allowing for fluid limb or body movements. It integrates sensory information related to movement and helps in orchestrating the complex interactions between various muscle groups. Dysfunction of the cerebellum can lead to difficulties in movement coordination, resulting in jerky or unsteady motions.
  3. Motor Learning: The cerebellum plays a significant role in motor learning processes. It is involved in adjusting and fine-tuning motor programs to achieve precise movements. Through trial-and-error processes, such as learning to hit a baseball, the cerebellum enables the refinement of motor skills. It continuously compares desired motor outcomes with actual movements, making necessary adjustments to achieve accuracy and efficiency. Damage to the cerebellum can impair motor learning abilities, leading to difficulties in acquiring new motor skills or adapting to changes in motor tasks.
  4. Cognitive Roles: Although the cerebellum is primarily associated with motor functions, it also contributes to certain cognitive processes. For instance, some studies suggest that the cerebellum is involved in language functions. While its precise role in cognitive tasks is not yet fully understood, evidence suggests that the cerebellum may be implicated in language acquisition, speech production, and certain aspects of working memory. Further research is needed to explore the extent of the cerebellum’s involvement in cognitive functions.

In summary, the cerebellum serves crucial functions in the human body. It plays a central role in maintaining balance and coordinating posture, synchronizing voluntary movements, facilitating motor learning, and potentially contributing to cognitive processes. Its complex interactions with other brain regions highlight its significance in both motor and non-motor functions, making it an essential component of the central nervous system.


  • The brainstem is located in the middle of the brain and serves as a vital connection between the cerebrum and the spinal cord. It consists of three main parts: the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla.
  • The midbrain, also known as the mesencephalon, is a complex structure that contains various neuron clusters, neural pathways, and other important structures. It plays a role in several functions, including hearing, movement, and responding to changes in the environment. One significant region within the midbrain is the substantia nigra, which is rich in dopamine neurons and is part of the basal ganglia. The substantia nigra is involved in movement and coordination and is affected in Parkinson’s disease.
  • The pons, named after the Latin word for “bridge,” serves as a connection between the midbrain and the medulla. It is responsible for the origin of four of the 12 cranial nerves, which play a crucial role in activities such as tear production, chewing, blinking, focusing vision, balance, hearing, and facial expression.
  • The medulla, located at the bottom of the brainstem, is where the brain meets the spinal cord. It is an essential part of the brainstem involved in regulating vital bodily functions necessary for survival. The medulla controls activities such as heart rhythm, breathing, blood flow, and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body. Additionally, the medulla generates reflexive actions like sneezing, vomiting, coughing, and swallowing.
  • Descending from the bottom of the medulla, the spinal cord passes through a large opening at the base of the skull and is supported by the vertebrae. The spinal cord serves as a communication pathway, transmitting messages between the brain and the rest of the body. It allows for the relay of sensory information from the body to the brain and coordinates motor responses from the brain to various parts of the body.
  • In summary, the brainstem plays a crucial role in connecting the cerebrum with the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla, each contributing to different functions. The midbrain facilitates hearing, movement, and response to environmental changes. The pons serves as a bridge between the midbrain and the medulla and controls various cranial nerve functions. The medulla regulates essential bodily activities and produces reflexive responses. The spinal cord extends from the medulla and acts as a communication pathway between the brain and the body. Together, the brainstem and spinal cord ensure the proper functioning and coordination of bodily processes.

Cerebrospinal fluid

  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear and colorless fluid that plays a crucial role in the protection and functioning of the brain and spinal cord. It circulates within various compartments of the central nervous system, including the subarachnoid space, ventricular system, and the central canal of the spinal cord.
  • The CSF is produced by specialized structures called choroid plexuses, which are present in all four ventricles of the brain. The ventricles consist of two lateral ventricles, a third ventricle, and a fourth ventricle. These ventricles contain the choroid plexus, which produces CSF. The third ventricle, located in the midline of the brain, is connected to the lateral ventricles. A narrow passageway called the cerebral aqueduct connects the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle, which is situated between the pons and the cerebellum.
  • The CSF flows through the ventricular system and exits the fourth ventricle through three openings known as the middle and lateral apertures. These openings allow the CSF to drain into the subarachnoid space and various subarachnoid cisterns, which are expanded areas within the subarachnoid space. From the cisterns, the CSF circulates around the brain and spinal cord, occupying the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid mater and pia mater.
  • Approximately 150mL of CSF is present within the subarachnoid space at any given time. It is a dynamic fluid that is constantly being produced and absorbed. The turnover rate of CSF is relatively fast, with the entire volume being replaced approximately every 5-6 hours. This continuous production and absorption of CSF help maintain a stable environment for the brain and spinal cord.
  • In addition to its circulatory function, a specialized drainage system called the glymphatic system has been identified in the brain. The glymphatic system involves the clearance of waste products and interstitial fluid from brain tissue. It utilizes both the CSF and meningeal lymphatic vessels associated with the dural sinuses and cerebral blood vessels. This pathway allows for the removal of metabolic waste and toxins from the brain, promoting its overall health and functioning.
  • The cerebrospinal fluid and the glymphatic system play critical roles in maintaining the homeostasis of the central nervous system. They contribute to the protection, nourishment, and waste clearance of brain tissue, ensuring its optimal functioning.

Brain Coverings: Meninges

  • The brain and spinal cord are surrounded by three layers of protective coverings known as the meninges.
  • The outermost layer is called the dura mater, which is thick and tough. It consists of two layers: the periosteal layer that lines the inner surface of the skull (cranium), and the meningeal layer located beneath it. The dura mater provides a sturdy and protective barrier for the brain and spinal cord. Spaces between these layers allow for the passage of veins and arteries that supply blood flow to the brain.
  • Beneath the dura mater is the arachnoid mater, a thin and delicate layer of connective tissue. Unlike the dura mater, the arachnoid mater does not contain nerves or blood vessels. It forms a web-like structure and is situated between the dura mater and the innermost layer, the pia mater.
  • Below the arachnoid mater lies the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The arachnoid mater acts as a barrier, containing the CSF within a subarachnoid space. The CSF is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds and cushions the entire central nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord. It serves to protect these structures from impact and helps to remove waste products and impurities.
  • The innermost layer of the meninges is the pia mater. This thin membrane adheres closely to the surface of the brain and follows its contours, providing support and protection. The pia mater is rich in veins and arteries, which supply blood to the brain and contribute to its nourishment.
  • In summary, the meninges are three layers of protective coverings that surround the brain and spinal cord. The dura mater is the outermost and toughest layer, followed by the arachnoid mater, which forms a web-like structure and contains the cerebrospinal fluid. The innermost layer, the pia mater, hugs the surface of the brain and is rich in blood vessels. Together, these layers provide essential protection, support, and nourishment for the central nervous system.

Microanatomy of Brain

  • The microanatomy of the human brain reveals a complex organization of various cell types and structures. The brain primarily consists of neurons, glial cells, neural stem cells, and blood vessels, each playing a crucial role in brain function.
  • Neurons, the fundamental building blocks of the nervous system, come in different types. These include interneurons, pyramidal cells (such as Betz cells), motor neurons (both upper and lower motor neurons), and cerebellar Purkinje cells. Betz cells, known for their large cell bodies, hold the distinction of being the largest cells in the nervous system. The adult human brain is estimated to contain around 86±8 billion neurons, with a similar number of non-neuronal cells (85±10 billion). Notably, the cerebral cortex houses approximately 16 billion neurons, while the cerebellum contains approximately 69 billion neurons.
  • Glial cells, often referred to as the supportive cells of the nervous system, also contribute significantly to brain structure and function. Various types of glial cells are present in the brain, including astrocytes (including Bergmann glia), oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells (including tanycytes), radial glial cells, microglia, and a subtype of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Astrocytes, the largest glial cells, have star-shaped bodies with numerous processes extending from them. Some of these processes form perivascular end-feet that surround capillary walls. In the cortex, the glia limitans is composed of astrocyte foot processes, providing support and containment for brain cells.
  • Mast cells, a type of white blood cell, play a role in the neuroimmune system within the brain. They are found in various brain structures, including the meninges. Mast cells are involved in neuroimmune responses during inflammatory conditions and help maintain the blood-brain barrier, particularly in regions where the barrier is absent. These cells are associated with allergic responses, immunity, autoimmunity, and inflammation. Mast cells also participate in the biochemical signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system, influencing the effects of pathogens on the body and the brain.
  • Brain-specific genes contribute to the unique characteristics of brain cells. Among all neurons, ELAVL3 is expressed, while pyramidal neurons additionally express NRGN and REEP2. GAD1, crucial for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter GABA, is expressed in interneurons. Glial cells express specific proteins that help identify them, such as GFAP and S100B for astrocytes, myelin basic protein for oligodendrocytes, and OLIG2, a transcription factor involved in oligodendrocyte development.
  • The microanatomy of the brain highlights the intricate cellular composition and specialized functions of different cell types. Neurons and glial cells work in concert to support the complex processes of the brain, ensuring its proper functioning and facilitating the vast array of cognitive and physiological activities.

How is blood supplied to the brain?

The blood supply to the brain is a vital process that ensures the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to support its metabolic needs. Here’s an overview of how blood is supplied to the brain based on the provided information:

  1. Internal Carotid Arteries: The majority of the cerebrum, which is the largest part of the brain, is supplied by the internal carotid arteries. These paired arteries arise from the common carotid arteries in the neck and enter the skull through openings called the carotid canals. They provide blood to the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes of the cerebrum.
  2. Vertebral Arteries: The cerebellum, brainstem, and the undersides of the cerebrum are supplied by the vertebral arteries. These arteries also originate from paired vessels in the neck known as the subclavian arteries. They enter the skull through the foramen magnum, a large opening at the base of the skull. The right and left vertebral arteries join together within the skull to form the basilar artery.
  3. Circle of Willis: At the base of the brain, the basilar artery and the internal carotid arteries communicate with each other in a structure called the Circle of Willis. This circular arrangement provides an important safety mechanism for the brain. In the event of a blockage in one of the main arteries, collateral blood flow can be redirected through the Circle of Willis, helping to prevent brain damage by maintaining an adequate blood supply to the brain.
  4. Venous Circulation: Unlike other areas of the body where arteries and veins typically run together, the venous circulation in the brain is different. The main veins that collect blood from the brain are integrated into the dura mater (a protective layer of the brain) to form venous sinuses. These sinuses, such as the superior sagittal sinus and the cavernous sinuses, gather blood from different regions of the brain. Eventually, the collected blood drains into the internal jugular veins, which exit the skull and become the major drainage pathway for the brain.

In summary, blood is supplied to the brain through the internal carotid arteries, which primarily serve the cerebrum, and the vertebral arteries, which supply the cerebellum, brainstem, and the undersides of the cerebrum. The Circle of Willis provides a safety mechanism for collateral blood flow. The brain’s venous circulation involves specialized venous sinuses that collect blood from various brain regions and drain into the internal jugular veins. These veins are the primary route through which blood exits the brain.

Development of Brain

  • The development of the brain is a complex and fascinating process that begins early in embryonic development. During the third week, a specialized region called the neural plate forms from the embryonic ectoderm. By the fourth week, the neural plate expands and gives rise to three primary brain vesicles: the forebrain (prosencephalon), midbrain (mesencephalon), and hindbrain (rhombencephalon).
  • The neural tube, which will later develop into the brain and spinal cord, is formed through the closure of the neural folds during the process of neurulation. Neural crest cells, derived from the ectoderm, populate the edges of the neural plate. As the neural tube forms, these neural crest cells migrate inside the tube, with cranial neural crest cells at the head end and caudal neural crest cells at the tail end. The cells at the cephalic end give rise to the brain, while those at the caudal end give rise to the spinal cord.
  • As the neural tube grows, it undergoes flexion and shaping. The forebrain bends sharply forward, forming the cerebral hemispheres. The midbrain and hindbrain develop from the curving and caudal parts of the tube, respectively. During the fifth week of development, secondary brain vesicles form, resulting in further differentiation of brain regions. The forebrain divides into the anterior telencephalon, which gives rise to structures like the cerebral cortex, and the posterior diencephalon, which gives rise to the thalamus and hypothalamus. The hindbrain further divides into the metencephalon, which develops into the cerebellum and pons, and the myelencephalon, which gives rise to the medulla oblongata.
  • Throughout development, the brain undergoes a process called gyrification, which involves the folding and wrinkling of the cortical surface. Initially, the cortex is smooth, but by around 24 weeks of gestation, the characteristic fissures and folds begin to emerge. The reasons behind gyrification are not fully understood, but it is believed to play a role in brain function and has been associated with intelligence and neurological disorders. Various theories propose mechanisms such as mechanical buckling, axonal tension, and differential tangential expansion to explain gyrification.
  • The development of specific brain regions and structures continues as the fetus grows. Sulci, or grooves, begin to form, demarcating different lobes of the brain. The lateral sulcus, marking the temporal lobe, is one of the first sulci to appear in the fourth month. By the sixth month, additional sulci are formed, distinguishing the frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes.
  • Genetic factors also contribute to brain development. For instance, the gene ARHGAP11B found in the human genome may play a significant role in gyrification and the enlargement of the brain.
  • Overall, the development of the brain is a highly regulated and complex process involving the formation and differentiation of various brain vesicles, migration of neural crest cells, and the intricate process of gyrification. These processes shape the structure and organization of the brain, laying the foundation for its function and complexity.

Function of Brain

The brain is an incredibly complex organ that serves as the command center of the central nervous system and controls most of the body’s functions. It plays a vital role in numerous cognitive processes, sensory perception, motor control, and overall coordination of bodily activities. Here are some key functions of the brain:

  1. Processing Sensory Information: The brain receives and interprets information from the senses, including vision, hearing, taste, smell, and touch. It integrates this sensory input to create a comprehensive understanding of the surrounding environment.
  2. Motor Control: The brain coordinates and controls voluntary and involuntary movements of the body. It sends signals to the muscles through the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system, enabling actions such as walking, talking, and grasping objects.
  3. Thinking and Reasoning: The brain is responsible for cognitive processes such as thinking, reasoning, problem-solving, decision-making, and memory formation. It enables us to process information, analyze situations, make judgments, and generate appropriate responses.
  4. Memory Storage and Retrieval: The brain plays a crucial role in encoding, storing, and retrieving memories. It allows us to retain and recall information, events, and experiences from the past.
  5. Emotion and Mood Regulation: The brain influences emotions and mood through various interconnected regions, including the limbic system. It helps regulate and interpret emotions, allowing us to experience feelings such as happiness, sadness, fear, and joy.
  6. Language and Communication: The brain enables the comprehension, production, and interpretation of language. It processes linguistic information, facilitates speech production, and allows us to understand and convey thoughts, ideas, and emotions through verbal and written communication.
  7. Homeostasis: The brain maintains internal balance and homeostasis by regulating various physiological processes such as body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and hormone secretion.
  8. Sleep and Consciousness: The brain regulates sleep patterns and the overall state of consciousness. It controls the sleep-wake cycle, which is essential for restorative processes and optimal brain function.
  9. Executive Functions: The brain is responsible for executive functions such as planning, organizing, prioritizing, and inhibiting impulses. It enables us to set goals, make decisions, exercise self-control, and engage in complex problem-solving.
  10. Coordination of Body Systems: The brain integrates and coordinates the functions of different body systems, including the nervous, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and endocrine systems. It ensures the harmonious interaction of these systems to maintain overall bodily function and survival.

It’s important to note that the brain’s functions are interconnected and often involve the collaboration of multiple regions working together in complex networks.

Lobes of the Brain and What They Control

The brain is divided into four sections, known as lobes, which are responsible for controlling specific functions. Let’s explore each lobe and its associated functions:

Lobes of the brain
Lobes of the brain | Image Source: NEUROtiker, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons
  1. Frontal Lobe: Located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is the largest lobe of the brain. It plays a crucial role in various functions, including:
  • Personality Characteristics: The frontal lobe is involved in determining an individual’s personality traits, behaviors, and social interactions.
  • Decision-Making: This lobe helps in making judgments, evaluating different options, and choosing appropriate courses of action.
  • Movement Control: The frontal lobe is responsible for planning and executing voluntary movements through its connection with the motor cortex.
  • Smell Recognition: Parts of the frontal lobe are involved in processing and recognizing smells.
  • Speech Ability: Broca’s area, located in the frontal lobe, is associated with speech production and language comprehension.
  1. Parietal Lobe: Situated in the middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe is responsible for several functions, including:
  • Object Identification: It helps in identifying objects and shapes and understanding their spatial relationships in the environment.
  • Spatial Awareness: The parietal lobe enables individuals to perceive their body’s position in relation to objects and navigate the physical world.
  • Pain and Touch Sensation: This lobe is involved in interpreting sensations of pain, pressure, temperature, and touch throughout the body.
  • Spoken Language Comprehension: Wernicke’s area, located in the parietal lobe, plays a role in understanding spoken language.
  1. Occipital Lobe: Located at the back of the brain, the occipital lobe is primarily responsible for processing visual information. Key functions of the occipital lobe include:
  • Vision Processing: It receives visual stimuli from the eyes and interprets them, allowing individuals to perceive and make sense of the surrounding visual world.
  • Object and Face Recognition: The occipital lobe helps in identifying and recognizing objects, faces, and visual patterns.
  1. Temporal Lobe: Found on the sides of the brain, the temporal lobes are involved in various functions, such as:
  • Short-term Memory: The temporal lobe plays a role in forming and retrieving short-term memories, including facts, events, and experiences.
  • Speech and Language: It is involved in language comprehension, allowing individuals to understand spoken and written language.
  • Musical Rhythm: The temporal lobe helps in perceiving and processing musical rhythm and melody.
  • Smell Recognition: Certain areas within the temporal lobe contribute to the recognition and interpretation of smells.

It’s important to note that while each lobe has primary functions associated with it, the brain functions as an interconnected system. Multiple lobes often work together to perform complex tasks and integrate information from various sensory modalities.

Deeper Structures Within the Brain

Within the brain, there are several deeper structures that play crucial roles in various physiological and neurological functions. Let’s explore some of these structures:

  1. Pituitary Gland: Known as the “master gland,” the pituitary gland is a small pea-sized structure located deep in the brain, behind the bridge of the nose. It regulates the function of other glands in the body by controlling the release of hormones from glands such as the thyroid, adrenals, ovaries, and testicles. The pituitary gland receives chemical signals from the hypothalamus through its stalk and blood supply.
  2. Hypothalamus: Situated above the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus sends chemical messages to the pituitary gland to control its function. It plays a vital role in various physiological processes, including regulating body temperature, coordinating sleep patterns, controlling hunger and thirst, and influencing aspects of memory and emotion.
  3. Amygdala: The amygdala consists of small, almond-shaped structures located under each hemisphere of the brain. As part of the limbic system, the amygdala is involved in regulating emotions and memory. It is associated with the brain’s reward system, stress responses, and the “fight or flight” response when an individual perceives a threat.
  4. Hippocampus: The hippocampus is a curved, seahorse-shaped organ found on the underside of each temporal lobe. It is part of a larger structure called the hippocampal formation. The hippocampus plays a crucial role in memory formation, learning, spatial perception, and navigation. It receives information from the cerebral cortex and has been implicated in memory disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.
  5. Pineal Gland: The pineal gland is located deep in the brain and is attached by a stalk to the top of the third ventricle. It responds to changes in light and dark and secretes melatonin, a hormone that regulates circadian rhythms and the sleep-wake cycle.
  6. Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF): Deep within the brain, there are four open areas known as ventricles. These ventricles are interconnected and are responsible for manufacturing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF is a watery fluid that circulates within and around the ventricles, spinal cord, and between the meninges (the protective layers surrounding the brain). CSF acts as a cushion for the brain and spinal cord, helps remove waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients to these vital structures.

These deeper structures within the brain work together with other regions to support various functions, including hormone regulation, memory formation, emotional processing, sleep-wake cycles, and overall brain health.

Cranial Nerves

The cranium, which is the dome of the skull, houses 12 nerves known as cranial nerves. These nerves have various functions and emerge from different parts of the brain. Let’s explore each cranial nerve and its role:

  1. Cranial Nerve 1: The olfactory nerve is responsible for the sense of smell. It allows for the detection and processing of odors.
  2. Cranial Nerve 2: The optic nerve is involved in vision. It transmits visual information from the eyes to the brain, allowing for sight.
  3. Cranial Nerve 3: The oculomotor nerve controls the movement of certain eye muscles, including those responsible for pupil constriction and eye movements.
  4. Cranial Nerve 4: The trochlear nerve innervates specific muscles that control eye movement, particularly the downward and inward rotation of the eye.
  5. Cranial Nerve 5: The trigeminal nerve is the largest cranial nerve and has both sensory and motor functions. It provides sensation from the scalp, face, teeth, sinuses, and jaw. It also controls the muscles involved in chewing.
  6. Cranial Nerve 6: The abducens nerve controls the lateral movement of the eye by innervating the muscles responsible for outward eye rotation.
  7. Cranial Nerve 7: The facial nerve controls the muscles of facial expression. It also plays a role in taste sensation, salivation, and tear production.
  8. Cranial Nerve 8: The vestibulocochlear nerve is involved in both balance (vestibular function) and hearing (cochlear function).
  9. Cranial Nerve 9: The glossopharyngeal nerve contributes to taste sensation in the back of the tongue and throat. It also innervates muscles involved in swallowing and helps monitor blood pressure and oxygen levels.
  10. Cranial Nerve 10: The vagus nerve has a wide range of functions. It provides sensory information from the ear and helps control motor activity in the heart, throat, and digestive system. It plays a role in regulating various bodily functions such as breathing, digestion, and heart rate.
  11. Cranial Nerve 11: The accessory nerve controls certain muscles in the head, neck, and shoulder regions, contributing to movements such as shrugging the shoulders and turning the head.
  12. Cranial Nerve 12: The hypoglossal nerve innervates the muscles of the tongue, enabling precise movements necessary for speech, swallowing, and other tongue-related functions.

The first two cranial nerves originate in the cerebrum, while the remaining 10 cranial nerves emerge from different parts of the brainstem, including the midbrain, pons, and medulla.

These cranial nerves are essential for various sensory and motor functions, allowing us to see, smell, taste, hear, move our facial muscles, maintain balance, and perform other critical activities related to the head, face, and sensory organs.


What is the human brain?

The human brain is the central organ of the nervous system and is responsible for controlling and coordinating bodily functions, processing sensory information, and enabling complex cognitive processes.

What is the structure of the human brain?

The human brain consists of various regions and structures, including the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, and subcortical structures such as the thalamus, hypothalamus, and hippocampus. It is composed of billions of neurons and glial cells.

What are the characteristics of the human brain?

Key characteristics of the human brain include its complexity, hemispheric specialization, plasticity, gray and white matter composition, and high energy demand.

What are the functions of the human brain?

The human brain performs numerous functions, including sensory perception, motor control, language processing, memory formation, emotions, decision-making, problem-solving, and regulation of bodily functions like breathing and heart rate.

How does the brain communicate?

The brain communicates through a network of neurons that transmit information electrically and chemically. Electrical signals called action potentials travel along the neurons, and chemical neurotransmitters transmit signals between neurons at synapses.

What is neuroplasticity?

Neuroplasticity refers to the brain’s ability to change its structure and function in response to experiences, learning, and environmental influences. It involves the formation and modification of neural connections and plays a vital role in learning, memory, and recovery from injuries.

What is the role of the cerebral cortex?

The cerebral cortex is responsible for higher-order cognitive functions, such as perception, attention, memory, language, reasoning, and problem-solving. It is divided into lobes, including the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, each associated with specific functions.

What is the function of the cerebellum?

The cerebellum is involved in coordinating voluntary movements, maintaining balance and posture, and motor learning. It receives sensory information from the body and helps fine-tune motor commands from the brain to produce smooth, coordinated movements.

How does the brain store and retrieve memories?

Memory formation and retrieval involve various brain regions, including the hippocampus and other structures within the limbic system. Information is encoded, consolidated, and stored as memories, which can be retrieved through processes like recall and recognition.

How does the brain control emotions?

Emotions are regulated by a complex interplay of brain regions, including the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and limbic system. These regions modulate emotional responses, emotional regulation, and the interpretation of emotional stimuli.



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