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GATE Syllabus for Biotechnology (BT) PDF

The Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) for Biotechnology (BT) 2024 encompasses a detailed and rigorous syllabus designed to evaluate the knowledge and understanding of candidates in various domains of biotechnology. The syllabus is segmented into three primary sections: General Aptitude, Engineering Mathematics, and Core Discipline, with the Core Discipline carrying the most significant weightage. Here, we will delve into the structure and important topics of the GATE Biotechnology syllabus, aiming to provide an informative and educational overview.

GATE Biotechnology Syllabus Overview

The Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) for Biotechnology (BT) is a pivotal examination for candidates aspiring to further their education or career in the field of biotechnology. The syllabus for GATE Biotechnology encompasses a broad spectrum of topics, all derived from the undergraduate curriculum. Understanding the detailed syllabus is essential for strategic preparation and success in the exam. Here, we present an academic overview of the GATE Biotechnology syllabus, designed to make complex concepts accessible in a clear and informative manner.

Structure of GATE Biotechnology Syllabus

The GATE Biotechnology syllabus is organized into seven key sections:

  1. Engineering Mathematics
    • This section covers mathematical concepts and techniques essential for engineering applications. Topics include linear algebra, calculus, differential equations, probability, and statistics.
  2. General Biotechnology
    • Fundamental principles and applications of biotechnology.
    • Topics include biochemistry, microbiology, immunology, and techniques used in biotechnology laboratories.
  3. Recombinant DNA Technology and Other Tools in Biotechnology
    • Techniques involved in the manipulation and analysis of DNA.
    • Includes gene cloning, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and genetic engineering tools.
  4. Genetics and Cellular Biology
    • Study of heredity and variation in living organisms.
    • Covers topics like Mendelian genetics, molecular genetics, cell structure and function, and cellular communication.
  5. Fundamentals of Biological Engineering
    • Application of engineering principles to biological systems.
    • Topics include enzyme kinetics, bioreactor design, and transport phenomena in biological systems.
  6. Plant, Animal, and Microbial Biotechnology
    • Biotechnology applications in different biological systems.
    • Covers plant tissue culture, genetic modification in plants and animals, and microbial biotechnology.
  7. Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology
    • Focuses on the processes involved in the production of biological products.
    • Includes upstream and downstream processing, bioreactor operations, and bioseparation techniques.

Importance of Each Section

Each section of the GATE Biotechnology syllabus is crucial and collectively ensures a comprehensive understanding of biotechnology as a discipline. Below is a breakdown of the importance and focus areas:

  1. Engineering Mathematics: This foundational section is critical for solving quantitative problems and understanding engineering concepts used in biotechnology.
  2. General Biotechnology: Provides a broad understanding of various biological sciences that form the basis of biotechnology.
  3. Recombinant DNA Technology: Essential for understanding genetic manipulation techniques, which are central to modern biotechnology.
  4. Genetics and Cellular Biology: Core knowledge area that delves into the principles of heredity and the functioning of cells, fundamental to all biotechnological applications.
  5. Fundamentals of Biological Engineering: Bridges biology and engineering, helping students apply engineering principles to biological systems for problem-solving.
  6. Plant, Animal, and Microbial Biotechnology: Explores the applications of biotechnology across different organisms, highlighting its versatility and impact.
  7. Bioprocess Engineering: Focuses on the industrial applications of biotechnology, including the production and purification of biological products.

Preparation Strategy

To effectively prepare for the GATE Biotechnology exam, candidates should:

  • Thoroughly understand the syllabus: Familiarize yourself with each section and its topics to plan your study schedule.
  • Focus on high-weightage topics: Allocate more study time to sections that carry more weight in the exam.
  • Practice regularly: Solve previous years’ question papers and take mock tests to assess your understanding and improve time management.
  • Revise consistently: Regular revision is crucial to retain information and concepts.

By comprehensively understanding the GATE Biotechnology syllabus and preparing strategically, candidates can enhance their chances of success in the examination.

SectionTopicsDescription
Engineering Mathematics– Linear Algebra<br>- Calculus<br>- Differential Equations<br>- Probability and StatisticsCovers mathematical concepts and techniques essential for engineering applications.
General Biotechnology– Biochemistry<br>- Microbiology<br>- Immunology<br>- Biotechnology TechniquesFundamental principles and applications of biotechnology.
Recombinant DNA Technology and Other Tools in Biotechnology– Gene Cloning<br>- Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)<br>- Genetic Engineering ToolsTechniques involved in the manipulation and analysis of DNA.
Genetics and Cellular Biology– Mendelian Genetics<br>- Molecular Genetics<br>- Cell Structure and Function<br>- Cellular CommunicationStudy of heredity and variation in living organisms.
Fundamentals of Biological Engineering– Enzyme Kinetics<br>- Bioreactor Design<br>- Transport Phenomena in Biological SystemsApplication of engineering principles to biological systems.
Plant, Animal, and Microbial Biotechnology– Plant Tissue Culture<br>- Genetic Modification in Plants and Animals<br>- Microbial BiotechnologyBiotechnology applications in different biological systems.
Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology– Upstream Processing<br>- Downstream Processing<br>- Bioreactor Operations<br>- Bioseparation TechniquesFocuses on the processes involved in the production of biological products.

Exam Pattern for Biotechnology (BT) 2024

Important TopicsWeightage (Marks)
General Aptitude10
Engineering Mathematics10-15
Plant and Animal Biotechnology15-20
Bioprocess Engineering10-15
Biotechnology20-25

Exam Pattern for BiotechnologyGATE Exam Pattern for Biotechnology (BT) 2024
Mode of ExaminationOnline
Duration of exam3 hours
Type of questionsMCQs, MSQs, & NATs
Total Sections3 sections i.e. General Aptitude, Mathematics, Subject-based
Total questions65
Total marks100 marks
Negative markingfor MCQs only

SectionDistribution of MarksTotal MarksTypes of questions
General Aptitude5 questions of 1 mark each 5 questions of 2 marks each15 marksMCQs
Subject Paper (BT) + Engineering Mathematics25 questions of 1 mark each 30 questions of 2 marks each85 marksMCQs, MSQ and NATs

Marking Scheme for BiotechnologyGATE Marking Scheme for Biotechnology (BT) 2024
Type of questionNegative marking for wrong answer
MCQ1/3 for 1 mark questions 2/3 for 2 marks questions
NAT/MSQNo negative marking

GATE Syllabus for Biotechnology (BT) – Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

TopicSubtopics
Linear Algebra– Matrices and determinants
– Systems of linear equations
– Eigenvalues and eigenvectors
Calculus– Limits, continuity, and differentiability
– Partial derivatives, maxima, and minima
– Sequences and series
– Test for convergence
Differential Equations– Linear and nonlinear first-order ODEs
– Higher-order ODEs with constant coefficients
– Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations
– Laplace transforms
Probability and Statistics– Mean, median, mode, and standard deviation
– Random variables
– Poisson, normal, and binomial distributions
– Correlation and regression analysis
Numerical Methods– Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations
– Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule
– Single step method for differential equations

GATE Syllabus for Biotechnology (BT) – Section 2: General Biology

TopicSubtopics
Biochemistry– Biomolecules: structure and function
– Biological membranes: structure, membrane channels and pumps, molecular motors, action potential, and transport processes
– Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and nucleic acids
Photosynthesis, respiration, and electron transport chain
Enzymes: classification, catalytic and regulatory strategies
– Enzyme kinetics: Michaelis-Menten equation
– Enzyme inhibition: competitive, non-competitive, and uncompetitive inhibition
Microbiology– Bacterial classification and diversity
– Microbial Ecology: microbes in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems
– Microbial interactions
– Viruses: structure and classification
– Methods in microbiology
– Microbial growth and nutrition
– Nitrogen fixation
– Microbial diseases and host-pathogen interactions
– Antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance
Immunology– Innate and adaptive immunity
– Humoral and cell-mediated immunity
Antibody structure and function
– Molecular basis of antibody diversity
– T cell and B cell development
– Antigen-antibody reaction
– Complement
– Primary and secondary lymphoid organs
– Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
Antigen processing and presentation
– Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody
– Regulation of immune response
– Immune tolerance
Hypersensitivity
Autoimmunity
– Graft versus host reaction
– Immunization and vaccines

GATE Syllabus for Biotechnology (BT) – Section 3: Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology

TopicSubtopics
Genetics and Evolutionary Biology– Mendelian inheritance
– Gene interaction
– Complementation
– Linkage, recombination, and chromosome mapping
– Extrachromosomal inheritance
– Microbial genetics: transformation, transduction, and conjugation
– Horizontal gene transfer and transposable elements
– Chromosomal variation
– Genetic disorders
Population genetics
– Epigenetics
– Selection and inheritance
– Adaptive and neutral evolution
– Genetic drift
– Species and speciation
Cell Biology– Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure
Cell cycle and cell growth control
– Cell-cell communication
Cell signaling and signal transduction
– Post-translational modifications
Protein trafficking
Cell death and autophagy
– Extracellular matrix
Molecular Biology– Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes
– Mutations and mutagenesis
– Regulation of gene expression
– Nucleic acid: replication, transcription, splicing, translation, and their regulatory mechanisms
– Non-coding and micro RNA
RNA interference
DNA damage and repair

GATE Syllabus for Biotechnology (BT) – Section 4: Fundamentals of Biological Engineering

TopicSubtopics
Engineering Principles Applied to Biological Systems– Material and energy balances for reactive and non-reactive systems
– Recycle, bypass, and purge processes
– Stoichiometry of growth and product formation
– Degree of reduction, electron balance, and theoretical oxygen demand
Classical Thermodynamics and Bioenergetics– Laws of thermodynamics
– Solution thermodynamics
– Phase equilibria, reaction equilibria
– Ligand binding
– Membrane potential
– Energetics of metabolic pathways, oxidation, and reduction reactions
Transport Processes– Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, fluid flow: laminar and turbulent
– Mixing in bioreactors, mixing time
– Molecular diffusion and film theory
– Oxygen transfer and uptake in bioreactor, kLa and its measurement
– Conductive and convective heat transfer, LMTD, overall heat transfer coefficient
– Heat exchangers

GATE Syllabus for Biotechnology (BT) – Section 5: Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology

SectionTopics
Bioreaction engineeringRate law, zero and first order kinetics; Ideal reactors – batch, mixed flow and plug flow; Enzyme immobilization, diffusion effects – Thiele modulus, effectiveness factor, Damkoehler number; Kinetics of cell growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Structured and unstructured models; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Microbial and enzyme reactors; Optimization and scale up.
Upstream and Downstream ProcessingMedia formulation and optimization; Sterilization of air and media; Filtration – membrane filtration, ultrafiltration; Centrifugation – high speed and ultra; Cell disruption; Principles of chromatography – ion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction, affinity, GC, HPLC and FPLC; Extraction, adsorption and drying.
Instrumentation and Process ControlPressure, temperature and flow measurement devices; Valves; First order and second order systems; Feedback and feed forward control; Types of controllers – proportional, derivative and integral control, tuning of controllers.

GATE Syllabus for Biotechnology (BT) – Section 6: Plant, Animal and Microbial Biotechnology

SectionTopics
Plant BiotechnologyTotipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Tissue culture and cell suspension culture system – methodology, kinetics of growth and nutrient optimization; Production of secondary metabolites; Hairy root culture; Plant products of industrial importance; Artificial seeds; Somaclonal variation; Protoplast, protoplast fusion – somatic hybrid and cybrid; Transgenic plants – direct and indirect methods of gene transfer techniques; Selection marker and reporter gene; Plastid transformation.
Animal BiotechnologyCulture media composition and growth conditions; Animal cell and tissue preservation; Anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture; Kinetics of cell growth; Micro & macrocarrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Stem cell technology; Animal cloning; Transgenic animals; Knock-out and knock-in animals.
Microbial BiotechnologyProduction of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites – Biofuels, bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics; Large scale production and purification of recombinant proteins and metabolites; Clinical-, food- and industrial- microbiology; Screening strategies for new products.

GATE Syllabus for Biotechnology (BT) – Section 7: Recombinant DNA technology and Other Tools in Biotechnology

SectionTopics
Recombinant DNA technologyRestriction and modification enzymes; Vectors – plasmids,
bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, bacterial and yeast artificial
chromosomes; Expression vectors; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation and
cloning, strategies for production of recombinant proteins; Transposons and gene targeting;
Molecular toolsPolymerase chain reaction; DNA/RNA labelling and sequencing; Southern
and northern blotting; In-situ hybridization; DNA fingerprinting, RAPD, RFLP; Site-directed
mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; CRISPR-Cas; Biosensing and biosensors.
Analytical toolsPrinciples of microscopy – light, electron, fluorescent and confocal; Principles
of spectroscopy – UV, visible, CD, IR, fluorescence, FT-IR, MS, NMR; Electrophoresis; Microarrays; Enzymatic assays; Immunoassays – ELISA, RIA, immunohistochemistry;
immunoblotting; Flow cytometry; Whole genome and ChIP sequencing.
Computational toolsBioinformatics resources and search tools; Sequence and structure
databases; Sequence analysis – sequence file formats, scoring matrices, alignment,
phylogeny; Genomics, proteomics, metabolomics; Gene prediction; Functional annotation;
Secondary structure and 3D structure prediction; Knowledge discovery in biochemical
databases; Metagenomics; Metabolic engineering and systems biology.

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