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Latest CSIR NET Syllabus Life Science PDF – CSIR NET UNIT Wise Syllabus

CSIR NET, or the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research National Eligibility Test, is a national-level exam conducted in India to determine eligibility for lecturership and for awarding Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) to Indian nationals in the field of science. The exam is conducted in five subjects, including Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Mathematical Sciences, and Earth, Atmospheric, Ocean, and Planetary Sciences.


The CSIR-UGC (NET) Exam for the Award of Junior Research Fellowship and Eligibility for Lectureship is a comprehensive assessment conducted over a duration of 3 hours, with a maximum score of 200 marks. It is a single paper test comprising multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and is divided into three parts, each focusing on different aspects of the candidate’s knowledge and aptitude.

Part ‘A’: General Science, Quantitative Reasoning & Analysis, Research Aptitude

  • This section consists of 20 questions.
  • Candidates need to answer any 15 questions.
  • Each question carries two marks.
  • Total marks allocated to this section is 30 out of 200.

Part ‘B’: Subject-related MCQs

  • This part contains 50 MCQs covering topics from the syllabus.
  • Candidates must answer any 35 questions.
  • Each question is worth two marks.
  • Total marks allocated to this section is 70 out of 200.

Part ‘C’: Scientific Concepts and Application

  • This segment comprises 75 questions.
  • It tests the candidate’s understanding and application of scientific concepts.
  • Candidates need to answer any 25 questions.
  • Each question carries four marks.
  • Total marks allocated to this section is 100 out of 200.

Negative Marking:

  • There is a negative marking scheme, with 25% of the marks deducted for each incorrect answer.
  • This scheme is applicable to all three parts of the exam.
SectionDescriptionNumber of QuestionsAnswered QuestionsMarks per QuestionTotal Marks
Part AGeneral Science, Quantitative Reasoning & Analysis, Research Aptitude2015230
Part BSubject-related MCQs5035270
Part CScientific Concepts and Application75254100
  • Total Time: 3 hours
  • Maximum Marks: 200
  • Negative Marking: 25% deduction for each wrong answer

Candidates are required to answer a total of 75 questions, choosing from a pool of 145 questions (20 from Part A, 50 from Part B, and 75 from Part C). The exam aims to evaluate candidates’ understanding of general science, quantitative reasoning, research aptitude, and their knowledge and application of scientific concepts.

Latest CSIR NET Syllabus For Life Sciences 2024-25

The CSIR NET Life Science exam syllabus encompasses 13 units that cover fundamental concepts in biology. It is designed to assess candidates’ understanding and knowledge in various areas of life sciences. Here is an overview of the syllabus:

  1. Molecules and their Interactions Relevant to Biology (Unit 1): This unit explores the structure and function of molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, and their interactions in biological systems.
  2. Cellular Organization (Unit 2): It covers the structure and function of cellular organelles, cell membrane, and cytoskeleton, as well as cell division and cell cycle regulation.
  3. Fundamental Processes (Unit 3): This unit includes topics such as bioenergetics, enzymology, and the regulation of enzyme activity.
  4. Cell Communication and Signaling (Unit 4): It focuses on the mechanisms of cell signaling, including intracellular signaling pathways and their regulation.
  5. Developmental Biology (Unit 5): This unit covers the processes of embryogenesis, morphogenesis, and organogenesis in multicellular organisms.
  6. System Physiology – Plant (Unit 6): It includes the study of the physiology of plants, including photosynthesis, respiration, and plant growth and development.
  7. System Physiology – Animal (Unit 7): This unit covers the physiology of animals, including nervous, muscular, circulatory, and endocrine systems.
  8. Inheritance Biology (Unit 8): It includes the principles of inheritance, genetic variation, and genetic disorders.
  9. Diversity of Life Forms (Unit 9): This unit explores the diversity of life on Earth, including the classification and characteristics of different organisms.
  10. Ecological Principles (Unit 10): It covers ecological concepts such as population dynamics, community ecology, and ecosystem dynamics.
  11. Evolution and Behavior (Unit 11): This unit includes the principles of evolution and the behavior of organisms in different environments.
  12. Applied Biology (Unit 12): It covers the application of biological principles in fields such as medicine, agriculture, and biotechnology.
  13. Methods in Biology (Unit 13): This unit includes techniques and methods used in biological research, such as microscopy, chromatography, and molecular biology techniques.
Unit No.Unit TitleDescription
1Molecules and their Interactions Relevant to BiologyStructure and function of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, and their interactions.
2Cellular OrganizationStructure and function of cellular organelles, cell membrane, cytoskeleton, cell division, and cycle regulation.
3Fundamental ProcessesBioenergetics, enzymology, regulation of enzyme activity.
4Cell Communication and SignalingMechanisms of cell signaling, intracellular signaling pathways, regulation.
5Developmental BiologyProcesses of embryogenesis, morphogenesis, organogenesis in multicellular organisms.
6System Physiology – PlantPlant physiology including photosynthesis, respiration, growth, and development.
7System Physiology – AnimalAnimal physiology including nervous, muscular, circulatory, and endocrine systems.
8Inheritance BiologyPrinciples of inheritance, genetic variation, genetic disorders.
9Diversity of Life FormsDiversity, classification, and characteristics of organisms.
10Ecological PrinciplesPopulation dynamics, community ecology, ecosystem dynamics.
11Evolution and BehaviorPrinciples of evolution, behavior of organisms in different environments.
12Applied BiologyApplication of biological principles in medicine, agriculture, biotechnology.
13Methods in BiologyTechniques and methods in biological research, microscopy, chromatography, molecular biology techniques.


Unit 1 of the CSIR NET Life Science syllabus, “Molecules and Their Interaction Relevant to Biology,” covers foundational concepts in chemistry and biochemistry that are essential for understanding biological processes. This unit delves into the structure of atoms, molecules, and chemical bonds, as well as the composition, structure, and function of biomolecules. Here’s an overview of the topics covered in this unit:

  1. Structure of Atoms, Molecules, and Chemical Bonds: This includes the basic structure of atoms, how atoms combine to form molecules, and the types of chemical bonds that hold molecules together.
  2. Composition, Structure, and Function of Biomolecules: Biomolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and vitamins are essential for life processes. Understanding their composition, structure, and function is crucial in biology.
  3. Stabilizing Interactions: Various interactions, such as Van der Waals forces, electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and hydrophobic interactions, play a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of biomolecules.
  4. Principles of Biophysical Chemistry: This includes concepts such as pH, buffers, reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, and colligative properties, which are important in understanding biological systems.
  5. Bioenergetics: Bioenergetics deals with the flow of energy in biological systems. Topics covered include glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, coupled reactions, group transfer, and biological energy transducers.
  6. Principles of Catalysis: Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in living organisms. This section covers enzyme kinetics, enzyme regulation, mechanism of enzyme catalysis, and isozymes.
  7. Conformation of Proteins: The structure of proteins is crucial for their function. This section covers the Ramachandran plot, secondary structure, domains, motifs, and folds of proteins.
  8. Conformation of Nucleic Acids: Nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, have specific structures that are important for their function. This section covers helical structures (A, B, Z), t-RNA, and micro-RNA.
  9. Stability of Proteins and Nucleic Acids: Understanding the factors that contribute to the stability of proteins and nucleic acids is important in understanding their function.
  10. Metabolism of Biomolecules: This includes the metabolic pathways involved in the breakdown and synthesis of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides, and vitamins.

This unit provides a foundation in the chemical and biochemical principles that underlie biological processes. It is essential for aspiring researchers and educators in the field of life sciences to have a strong grasp of these concepts.

Structure of Atoms, Molecules, and Chemical BondsBasic structure of atoms, molecular bonding types.
Composition, Structure, and Function of BiomoleculesCarbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, vitamins.
Stabilizing InteractionsVan der Waals forces, electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions, etc.
Principles of Biophysical ChemistrypH, buffers, reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, colligative properties.
BioenergeticsGlycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, coupled reactions, group transfer, biological energy transducers.
Principles of CatalysisEnzymes, enzyme kinetics, enzyme regulation, mechanism of enzyme catalysis, isozymes.
Conformation of ProteinsRamachandran plot, secondary structure, domains, motifs, folds.
Conformation of Nucleic AcidsHelical structures (A, B, Z), t-RNA, micro-RNA.
Stability of Proteins and Nucleic AcidsFactors affecting stability of proteins and nucleic acids.
Metabolism of BiomoleculesCarbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides, vitamins.


Unit 2 of the CSIR NET Life Science syllabus focuses on the structural and functional aspects of cellular organization. Understanding these topics is crucial for comprehending the complexities of cellular processes and functions.

Membrane Structure and FunctionStructure of model membrane, lipid bilayer, membrane protein diffusion, osmosis, ion channels, active transport, membrane pumps, mechanism of sorting, regulation of intracellular transport, electrical properties of membranes.
Structural Organization and Function of Intracellular OrganellesCell wall, nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, plastids, vacuoles, chloroplast, structure & function of cytoskeleton, its role in motility.
Organization of Genes and ChromosomesOperon, unique and repetitive DNA, interrupted genes, gene families, structure of chromatin and chromosomes, heterochromatin, euchromatin, transposons.
Cell Division and Cell CycleMitosis and meiosis, their regulation, steps in cell cycle, regulation and control of cell cycle.
Microbial PhysiologyGrowth yield and characteristics, strategies of cell division, stress response.


Unit 3 of the CSIR NET Life Science syllabus covers the fundamental processes of DNA replication, RNA synthesis, protein synthesis, and the control of gene expression. Understanding these processes is crucial for unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular functions.

DNA Replication, Repair, and RecombinationUnit of replication, enzymes involved, replication origin and replication fork, fidelity of replication, extrachromosomal replicons, DNA damage and repair mechanisms, homologous and site-specific recombination.
RNA Synthesis and ProcessingTranscription factors and machinery, formation of initiation complex, transcription activator and repressor, RNA polymerases, capping, elongation, and termination, RNA processing, RNA editing, splicing, and polyadenylation, structure and function of different types of RNA, RNA transport.
Protein Synthesis and ProcessingRibosome, formation of initiation complex, initiation factors and their regulation, elongation and elongation factors, termination, genetic code, aminoacylation of tRNA, tRNA-identity, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, translational proof-reading, translational inhibitors, post-translational modification of proteins.
Control of Gene ExpressionRegulating the expression of phages, viruses, prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes, role of chromatin in gene expression and gene silencing.

CSIR NET Syllabus Unit 4 – Cell communication and cell signaling

Unit 4 of the CSIR NET Life Science syllabus covers cell communication, signaling, host-parasite interactions, cancer biology, and the innate and adaptive immune systems. Understanding these topics is crucial for understanding the complex mechanisms underlying cell behavior and the immune response.

Host-Parasite InteractionRecognition and entry processes of pathogens like bacteria, viruses into animal and plant host cells, alteration of host cell behavior by pathogens, virus-induced cell transformation, pathogen-induced diseases in animals and plants, cell-cell fusion in both normal and abnormal cells.
Cell SignalingHormones and their receptors, cell surface receptor, signaling through G-protein coupled receptors, signal transduction pathways, second messengers, regulation of signaling pathways, bacterial and plant two-component systems, light signaling in plants, bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing.
Cellular CommunicationRegulation of hematopoiesis, general principles of cell communication, cell adhesion and roles of different adhesion molecules, gap junctions, extracellular matrix, integrins, neurotransmission and its regulation.
CancerGenetic rearrangements in progenitor cells, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, cancer and the cell cycle, virus-induced cancer, metastasis, interaction of cancer cells with normal cells, apoptosis, therapeutic interventions of uncontrolled cell growth.
Innate and Adaptive Immune SystemCells and molecules involved in innate and adaptive immunity, antigens, antigenicity and immunogenicity, B and T cell epitopes, structure and function of antibody molecules, generation of antibody diversity, monoclonal antibodies, antibody engineering, antigen-antibody interactions, MHC molecules, antigen processing and presentation, activation and differentiation of B and T cells, B and T cell receptors, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, primary and secondary immune modulation, the complement system, Toll-like receptors, cell-mediated effector functions, inflammation, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity, immune response during bacterial (tuberculosis), parasitic (malaria) and viral (HIV) infections, congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies, vaccines.


Unit 5 of the CSIR NET Life Science syllabus covers developmental biology, including basic concepts of development, gametogenesis, fertilization, early development, morphogenesis, organogenesis in animals and plants, and programmed cell death, aging, and senescence. Understanding these topics is essential for comprehending the processes underlying the development and growth of organisms.

Basic Concepts of DevelopmentPotency, commitment, specification, induction, competence, determination, differentiation, morphogenetic gradients, cell fate, cell lineages, stem cells, genomic equivalence, cytoplasmic determinants, imprinting, mutants, transgenics in analysis of development.
Gametogenesis, Fertilization, and Early DevelopmentProduction of gametes, cell surface molecules in sperm-egg recognition in animals, embryo sac development, double fertilization in plants, zygote formation, cleavage, blastula formation, embryonic fields, gastrulation, formation of germ layers in animals, embryogenesis, establishment of symmetry in plants, seed formation, germination.
Morphogenesis and Organogenesis in AnimalsCell aggregation, differentiation in Dictyostelium, axes, pattern formation in Drosophila, amphibians, chick, organogenesis – vulva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans, eye lens induction, limb development, regeneration in vertebrates, differentiation of neurons, post-embryonic development, larval formation, metamorphosis, environmental regulation of normal development, sex determination.
Morphogenesis and Organogenesis in PlantsOrganization of shoot, root apical meristem, shoot, root development, leaf development, phyllotaxy, transition to flowering, floral meristems, floral development in Arabidopsis, Antirrhinum.
Programmed Cell Death, Aging, and SenescenceProcesses of programmed cell death, aging, senescence in organisms.


Unit 6 of the CSIR NET Life Science syllabus focuses on the physiological processes in plants, including photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen metabolism, plant hormones, sensory photobiology, solute transport, photoassimilate translocation, secondary metabolites, and stress physiology. Understanding these topics is crucial for understanding how plants function and respond to their environment.

PhotosynthesisLight harvesting complexes; mechanisms of electron transport; photoprotective mechanisms; CO2 fixation-C3, C4 and CAM pathways.
Respiration and PhotorespirationCitric acid cycle; plant mitochondrial electron transport and ATP synthesis; alternate oxidase; photorespiratory pathway.
Nitrogen MetabolismNitrate and ammonium assimilation; amino acid biosynthesis.
Plant HormonesBiosynthesis, storage, breakdown, and transport; physiological effects and mechanisms of action.
Sensory PhotobiologyStructure, function, and mechanisms of action of phytochromes, cryptochromes, and phototropins; stomatal movement; photoperiodism, biological clocks.
Solute Transport and Photoassimilate TranslocationUptake, transport, and translocation of water, ions, solutes, and macromolecules from soil, through cells, across membranes, through xylem and phloem; transpiration; mechanisms of loading and unloading of photoassimilates.
Secondary MetabolitesBiosynthesis of terpenes, phenols, and nitrogenous compounds and their roles.
Stress PhysiologyResponses of plants to biotic (pathogen and insects) and abiotic (water, temperature, salt) stresses.


Unit 7 of the CSIR NET Life Science syllabus focuses on the physiological processes in animals, including blood and circulation, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, nervous system, sense organs, excretory system, thermoregulation, stress and adaptation, digestive system, and endocrinology and reproduction. Understanding these topics is crucial for understanding how animals function and respond to their environment.

Blood and CirculationBlood corpuscles, haemopoiesis, formed elements, plasma function, blood volume regulation, blood groups, haemoglobin, immunity, haemostasis.
Cardiovascular SystemComparative anatomy of heart structure, myogenic heart, specialized tissue, ECG – its principle and significance, cardiac cycle, heart as a pump, blood pressure, neural and chemical regulation.
Respiratory SystemComparison of respiration in different species, anatomical considerations, transport of gases, exchange of gases, waste elimination, neural and chemical regulation of respiration.
Nervous SystemNeurons, action potential, gross neuroanatomy of the brain and spinal cord, central and peripheral nervous system, neural control of muscle tone and posture.
Sense OrgansVision, hearing, tactile response.
Excretory SystemComparative physiology of excretion, kidney, urine formation, urine concentration, waste elimination, micturition, regulation of water balance, blood volume, blood pressure, electrolyte balance, acid-base balance.
ThermoregulationComfort zone, body temperature regulation – physical, chemical, neural regulation, acclimatization.
Stress and AdaptationPhysiological responses to stress and mechanisms of adaptation.
Digestive SystemDigestion, absorption, energy balance, basal metabolic rate.
Endocrinology and ReproductionEndocrine glands, basic mechanism of hormone action, hormones and diseases; reproductive processes, gametogenesis, ovulation, neuroendocrine regulation.


Unit 8 of the CSIR NET Life Science syllabus covers inheritance biology, including Mendelian principles, concepts of genes, extensions of Mendelian principles, gene mapping methods, extra chromosomal inheritance, microbial genetics, human genetics, quantitative genetics, mutation, structural and numerical alterations of chromosomes, and recombination. Understanding these topics is crucial for understanding the principles of inheritance and genetic variability.

Mendelian PrinciplesDominance, segregation, independent assortment.
Concept of GeneAllele, multiple alleles, pseudoallele, complementation tests.
Extensions of Mendelian PrinciplesCodominance, incomplete dominance, gene interactions, pleiotropy, genomic imprinting, penetrance and expressivity, phenocopy, linkage and crossing over, sex linkage, sex-limited and sex-influenced characters.
Gene Mapping MethodsLinkage maps, tetrad analysis, mapping with molecular markers, mapping using somatic cell hybrids, development of mapping population in plants.
Extra Chromosomal InheritanceInheritance of mitochondrial and chloroplast genes, maternal inheritance.
Microbial GeneticsMethods of genetic transfers – transformation, conjugation, transduction, sexduction, mapping genes by interrupted mating, fine structure analysis of genes.
Human GeneticsPedigree analysis, lod score for linkage testing, karyotypes, genetic disorders.
Quantitative GeneticsPolygenic inheritance, heritability and its measurements, QTL mapping.
MutationTypes, causes and detection, mutant types – lethal, conditional, biochemical, loss of function, gain of function, germinal versus somatic mutants, insertional mutagenesis.
Structural and Numerical Alterations of ChromosomesDeletion, duplication, inversion, translocation, ploidy and their genetic implications.
RecombinationHomologous and non-homologous recombination including transposition.


Unit 9 of the CSIR NET Life Science syllabus covers the diversity of life forms, including principles and methods of taxonomy, levels of structural organization, outline classification of plants, animals, and microorganisms, natural history of the Indian subcontinent, organisms of health and agricultural importance, and organisms of conservation concern. Understanding these topics is crucial for understanding the diversity and classification of living organisms.

Principles & Methods of TaxonomyConcepts of species and hierarchical taxa, biological nomenclature, classical & quantitative methods of taxonomy of plants, animals, and microorganisms.
Levels of Structural OrganizationUnicellular, colonial, and multicellular forms. Levels of organization of tissues, organs, & systems. Comparative anatomy, adaptive radiation, adaptive modifications.
Outline Classification of Life FormsImportant criteria used for classification in each taxon. Classification of plants, animals, and microorganisms. Evolutionary relationships among taxa.
Natural History of Indian SubcontinentMajor habitat types of the subcontinent, geographic origins, and migrations of species. Common Indian mammals, birds. Seasonality and phenology of the subcontinent.
Organisms of Health & Agricultural ImportanceCommon parasites and pathogens of humans, domestic animals, and crops.
Organisms of Conservation ConcernRare, endangered species. Conservation strategies.


Unit 10 of the CSIR NET Life Science syllabus covers ecological principles, including the environment, habitat and niche, population ecology, species interactions, community ecology, ecological succession, ecosystem ecology, biogeography, applied ecology, and conservation biology. Understanding these topics is crucial for understanding the interactions between organisms and their environment, as well as for developing strategies for conservation and sustainable management of ecosystems.

The EnvironmentPhysical environment; biotic environment; biotic and abiotic interactions.
Habitat and NicheConcept of habitat and niche; niche width and overlap; fundamental and realized niche; resource partitioning; character displacement.
Population EcologyCharacteristics of a population; population growth curves; population regulation; life history strategies (r and K selection); concept of metapopulation – demes and dispersal, interdemic extinctions, age structured populations.
Species InteractionsTypes of interactions, interspecific competition, herbivory, carnivory, pollination, symbiosis.
Community EcologyNature of communities; community structure and attributes; levels of species diversity and its measurement; edges and ecotones.
Ecological SuccessionTypes; mechanisms; changes involved in succession; concept of climax.
Ecosystem EcologyEcosystem structure; ecosystem function; energy flow and mineral cycling (C, N, P); primary production and decomposition; structure and function of some Indian ecosystems: terrestrial (forest, grassland) and aquatic (freshwater, marine, estuarine).
BiogeographyMajor terrestrial biomes; theory of island biogeography; biogeographical zones of India.
Applied EcologyEnvironmental pollution; global environmental change; biodiversity: status, monitoring, and documentation; major drivers of biodiversity change; biodiversity management approaches.
Conservation BiologyPrinciples of conservation, major approaches to management, Indian case studies on conservation/management strategy (Project Tiger, Biosphere reserves).


Unit 11 of the CSIR NET Life Science syllabus covers evolution and behavior, including the emergence of evolutionary thoughts, origin of cells, unicellular evolution, paleontology and evolutionary history, molecular evolution, the mechanisms of evolution, and the relationship between brain, behavior, and evolution. Understanding these topics is crucial for understanding the evolutionary processes that have shaped life on Earth, as well as the behaviors that organisms exhibit as a result of these processes.

Emergence of Evolutionary ThoughtsLamarck; Darwin–concepts of variation, adaptation, struggle, fitness, and natural selection; Mendelism; Spontaneity of mutations; The evolutionary synthesis.
Origin of Cells and Unicellular EvolutionOrigin of basic biological molecules; Abiotic synthesis of organic monomers and polymers; Concept of Oparin and Haldane; Experiment of Miller (1953); The first cell; Evolution of prokaryotes; Origin of eukaryotic cells; Evolution of unicellular eukaryotes; Anaerobic metabolism, photosynthesis, and aerobic metabolism.
Paleontology and Evolutionary HistoryThe evolutionary time scale; Eras, periods, and epoch; Major events in the evolutionary time scale; Origins of unicellular and multicellular organisms; Major groups of plants and animals; Stages in primate evolution including Homo.
Molecular EvolutionConcepts of neutral evolution, molecular divergence, and molecular clocks; Molecular tools in phylogeny, classification, and identification; Protein and nucleotide sequence analysis; origin of new genes and proteins; Gene duplication and divergence.
The MechanismsPopulation genetics – Populations, Gene pool, Gene frequency; Hardy-Weinberg Law; concepts and rate of change in gene frequency through natural selection, migration, and random genetic drift; Adaptive radiation; Isolating mechanisms; Speciation; Allopatricity and Sympatricity; Convergent evolution; Sexual selection; Co-evolution.
Brain, Behavior, and EvolutionApproaches and methods in the study of behavior; Proximate and ultimate causation; Altruism and evolution-Group selection, Kin selection, Reciprocal altruism; Neural basis of learning, memory, cognition, sleep, and arousal; Biological clocks; Development of behavior; Social communication; Social dominance; Use of space and territoriality; Mating systems, Parental investment, and Reproductive success; Parental care; Aggressive behavior; Habitat selection and optimality in foraging; Migration, orientation, and navigation; Domestication and behavioral changes.


Unit 12 of the CSIR NET Life Science syllabus covers applied biology, including microbial fermentation, immunological principles and applications, transgenic animals and plants, genomics and its applications, bioresource and uses of biodiversity, breeding in plants and animals, bioremediation and phytoremediation, and biosensors. Understanding these topics is crucial for applying biological principles to various fields such as medicine, agriculture, and environmental science.

Microbial Fermentation and ProductionProduction of small and macro molecules through microbial fermentation.
Immunological Principles and ApplicationsApplication of immunological principles in vaccines, diagnostics. Tissue and cell culture methods for plants and animals.
Transgenic Animals and PlantsCreation and application of transgenic animals and plants. Molecular approaches to diagnosis and strain identification.
Genomics and its ApplicationsStudy of genomics and its application to health and agriculture, including gene therapy.
Bioresource and Uses of BiodiversityStudy of bioresources and uses of biodiversity.
Breeding in Plants and AnimalsBreeding techniques in plants and animals, including marker-assisted selection.
Bioremediation and PhytoremediationTechniques and applications of bioremediation and phytoremediation.
BiosensorsStudy and application of biosensors.


Unit 13 of the CSIR NET Life Science syllabus covers methods in biology, including molecular biology and recombinant DNA methods, histochemical and immunotechniques, biophysical methods, statistical methods, radiolabeling techniques, microscopic techniques, electrophysiological methods, and methods in field biology. Understanding these methods is crucial for conducting research in various biological disciplines.

Molecular Biology and Recombinant DNA MethodsIsolation and purification of RNA, DNA (genomic and plasmid) and proteins, different separation methods. Analysis of RNA, DNA, and proteins by one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing gels. Molecular cloning of DNA or RNA fragments in bacterial and eukaryotic systems. Expression of recombinant proteins using bacterial, animal, and plant vectors. Isolation of specific nucleic acid sequences. Generation of genomic and cDNA libraries in plasmid, phage, cosmid, BAC, and YAC vectors. In vitro mutagenesis and deletion techniques, gene knockout in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms. Protein sequencing methods, detection of post-translation modification of proteins. DNA sequencing methods, strategies for genome sequencing. Methods for analysis of gene expression at RNA and protein level, large-scale expression, such as microarray-based techniques. Isolation, separation, and analysis of carbohydrate and lipid molecules. RFLP, RAPD, and AFLP techniques.
Histochemical and ImmunotechniquesAntibody generation, Detection of molecules using ELISA, RIA, western blot, immunoprecipitation, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence microscopy, detection of molecules in living cells, in situ localization by techniques such as FISH and GISH.
Biophysical MethodMolecular analysis using UV/visible, fluorescence, circular dichroism, NMR, and ESR spectroscopy. Molecular structure determination using X-ray diffraction and NMR. Molecular analysis using light scattering, different types of mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance methods.
Statistical MethodsMeasures of central tendency and dispersal; probability distributions (Binomial, Poisson, and normal); Sampling distribution; Difference between parametric and non-parametric statistics; Confidence Interval; Errors; Levels of significance; Regression and Correlation; t-test; Analysis of variance; X2 test; Basic introduction to Multivariate statistics, etc.
Radiolabeling TechniquesDetection and measurement of different types of radioisotopes normally used in biology, incorporation of radioisotopes in biological tissues and cells, molecular imaging of radioactive material, safety guidelines.
Microscopic TechniquesVisualization of cells and subcellular components by light microscopy, resolving powers of different microscopes, microscopy of living cells, scanning and transmission microscopes, different fixation and staining techniques for EM, freeze-etch and freeze-fracture methods for EM, image processing methods in microscopy.
Electrophysiological MethodsSingle neuron recording, patch-clamp recording, ECG, Brain activity recording, lesion and stimulation of brain, pharmacological testing, PET, MRI, fMRI, CAT.
Methods in Field BiologyMethods of estimating population density of animals and plants, ranging patterns through direct, indirect, and remote observations, sampling methods in the study of behavior, habitat characterization: ground and remote sensing methods.

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