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Cell Wall – Definition, Structure, Composition, Functions

What is a Cell Wall?

  • A cell wall is a structural layer that envelops certain cells, situated just outside the cell membrane. This layer can range from being tough and rigid to flexible, depending on its composition and the type of organism. The primary purpose of the cell wall is to provide the cell with structural support, ensuring its shape is maintained. Besides offering support, the cell wall serves as a protective barrier, safeguarding the cell from potential external threats and mechanical damage. Additionally, it functions as a filtering mechanism, regulating the movement of substances in and out of the cell.
  • Unlike animal cells, which lack a cell wall, many eukaryotic organisms such as plants, fungi, and algae possess this protective layer. Furthermore, most prokaryotic cells, with the exception of mollicute bacteria, are also equipped with a cell wall. One of the crucial roles of the cell wall is to act as a pressure vessel. This prevents the cell from over-expanding when water enters, ensuring its integrity is maintained.
  • The composition of cell walls is not uniform and can vary significantly between different organisms, cell types, and even developmental stages. For instance, the primary cell wall of terrestrial plants is predominantly made up of polysaccharides like cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectin. In addition to these, other polymers such as lignin, suberin, or cutin might be anchored to or embedded within the plant cell walls. Algae, on the other hand, have cell walls composed of glycoproteins and specific polysaccharides like carrageenan and agar, which are not found in terrestrial plants. Bacterial cell walls are primarily made up of peptidoglycan, while archaea can have walls composed of glycoprotein S-layers, pseudopeptidoglycan, or other polysaccharides. Fungi, another group of organisms, have cell walls that are primarily composed of the polymer chitin, which is made from N-acetylglucosamine. A unique case is that of diatoms, which have a cell wall made of biogenic silica.
  • Then, it’s essential to understand that the lipid-protein plasma membranes, which are relatively thin, offer limited protection to the cell’s inner components. Therefore, a more robust outer envelope, the cell wall, is necessary to ensure maximum protection. This wall encloses almost all cells, with the notable exception of animal cells.
  • In conclusion, the cell wall is an integral component of many cells, providing them with rigidity, durability, and resistance against external stressors. It is the outermost protective layer in plant cells, bacteria, fungal cells, and protists. Its composition varies among different organisms, but its primary functions remain consistent: protection, support, and facilitating cell-cell interactions.

Cell Wall Definition

A cell wall is a rigid and protective outer layer found in plants, fungi, bacteria, and some protists, providing structural support and protection to the cell.

Cell Wall Diagram
Cell Wall Diagram

Properties of Cell Wall

The cell wall is a crucial component of many organisms, including plants, fungi, algae, and certain prokaryotes. It provides structural support, protection, and plays a role in cellular communication. Here are the key properties of the cell wall:

  1. Structural Support:
    • The cell wall provides rigidity and determines the shape of the cell. In plants, it helps maintain turgor pressure, which is essential for plant rigidity.
  2. Protection:
    • The cell wall acts as a barrier against mechanical stress and prevents the cell from bursting in hypotonic environments.
    • It offers protection against pathogens and herbivores in plants.
  3. Permeability:
    • While the cell wall provides a rigid structure, it is also semi-permeable, allowing certain molecules to pass through.
    • Small molecules and ions can diffuse through the cell wall, while larger molecules may require specialized mechanisms.
  4. Composition:
    • The cell wall’s composition varies among organisms. For instance, plant cell walls mainly consist of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. Fungal cell walls contain chitin and glucans, while bacterial cell walls are made of peptidoglycan.
    • Some algae have cell walls made of silica or alginates, and archaea have walls composed of various polysaccharides and proteins.
  5. Thickness:
    • The cell wall’s thickness can vary. For example, gram-positive bacteria have a thicker peptidoglycan layer than gram-negative bacteria.
  6. Dynamic Nature:
    • The cell wall is not a static structure. It can be remodeled, especially during cell growth, division, and differentiation.
    • Enzymes like expansins in plants help in loosening the cell wall matrix, allowing for cell expansion.
  7. Cell Adhesion:
    • In plants, the middle lamella, rich in pectins, glues adjacent cells together.
    • In bacteria, certain structures like pili can extend through the cell wall to help in adhesion to surfaces or other cells.
  8. Role in Reproduction:
    • In fungi, the cell wall plays a role in the formation of reproductive structures like spores.
  9. Biochemical Properties:
    • The cell wall can have biochemical activities. For instance, certain enzymes embedded in the cell wall can break down molecules outside the cell, preparing them for uptake.
  10. Target for Antibiotics:
    • In bacteria, the unique composition of the cell wall makes it a target for antibiotics. For example, penicillin targets the synthesis of peptidoglycan in bacterial cell walls.
  1. Cell Wall Deficiency:
    • Some cells can exist without a cell wall under certain conditions. For instance, certain bacteria can transition into a wall-less state called the L-form, which can have implications for antibiotic resistance.

In summary, the cell wall is a multifunctional structure that plays a pivotal role in maintaining cell integrity, facilitating growth, and providing protection against various environmental stresses. Its properties and functions are tailored to the specific needs and environments of the organisms that possess them.

Composition of Cell Wall

Cell Wall Diagram
Cell Wall Diagram

The cell wall, a crucial component of many organisms, is intricately designed with specific materials that provide both structure and function. In plants, the primary constituent of the cell wall is cellulose, a complex carbohydrate. This cellulose is organized into rod-shaped structures known as microfibrils, which serve as the foundational skeleton of the cell wall.

Besides cellulose, the matrix of the plant cell wall is enriched with three primary macromolecules: hemicellulose, proteins, and pectins. Each of these components plays a distinct role in maintaining the integrity and functionality of the cell wall.

  1. Hemicellulose: This is a branched polysaccharide, characterized by a backbone primarily made of sugar molecules like glucose. Additionally, it possesses side chains composed of other sugars, such as xylose. Hemicellulose has a unique ability to bind to cellulose microfibrils, resulting in the formation of a robust structural network. This network enhances the resilience and strength of the cell wall, ensuring it can withstand various external pressures.
  2. Proteins: Although present in smaller quantities compared to other components, proteins are essential for the cell wall’s functionality. Predominantly, the cell wall contains hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Furthermore, it houses various enzymes, including extensin, which play pivotal roles in the cell wall’s biochemistry. Other significant components like lignin, cutin, and suberin are also present, each contributing to the cell wall’s diverse functions.
  3. Pectins: Pectins are a class of negatively charged polysaccharides, distinguished by their galacturonic acid content. One of the primary roles of pectins within the cell wall is their ability to retain water. Due to this property, they form an extensively hydrated gel, filling the spaces between the fibrous elements of the cell wall. This gel-like structure not only provides flexibility to the cell wall but also aids in maintaining its turgidity.

In conclusion, the cell wall’s composition is a harmonious blend of various components, each contributing to its structural and functional attributes. The intricate arrangement of cellulose, hemicellulose, proteins, and pectins ensures that the cell wall can effectively protect the cell, provide structural support, and facilitate various biochemical processes.

Structure of Cell Wall

Structure of Cell Wall
Structure of Cell Wall

The cell wall, a defining feature of many organisms, exhibits a complex and layered structure that is essential for its varied functions. In plants, the cell wall’s architecture can be broken down into three distinct layers, each with its unique composition and purpose.

  1. The Primary Cell Wall: This is the initial layer that forms around a cell as it grows. It is typically thin and flexible, allowing for the cell’s expansion. The primary cell wall is composed mainly of xyloglucans, which form hydrogen bonds with the microfibrils. These xyloglucans play a pivotal role in connecting the microfibrils to pectin, resulting in a loosely packed arrangement. This layer is present in all meristematic cells and many mature cells that retain their living components. As the cell matures, the thickness of the primary wall can increase significantly, even if there’s no surface growth.
  2. The Secondary Cell Wall: After a cell reaches its full development, a thicker layer, known as the secondary cell wall, forms inside the primary cell wall. However, it’s essential to note that not all cells possess this layer. The secondary cell wall is characterized by its high content of cellulose and lignin. The presence of lignin imparts additional rigidity to the wall and provides waterproofing, making it especially prominent in cells of the xylem tissues. In this layer, the content of xyloglucan decreases while xylan increases, leading to the formation of tightly packed microfibrils and less branched polymers. This structural shift gives the cell its rectangular or square shape and makes the secondary cell wall the thickest of the three layers.
  3. The Middle Lamella: Serving as the outermost layer of the plant cell wall, the middle lamella acts as a bridge, facilitating connections and interactions between adjacent plant cells. This layer is rich in pectin, lignin, and certain proteins. Unlike the other layers, the middle lamella is devoid of cellulose and primarily consists of lignin and hemicellulose. Its primary role is to act as an adhesive, binding neighboring cells together.

Therefore, the cell wall’s formation begins as a thin cell plate that appears between the plasma membranes of newly formed daughter cells post cell division. As it matures, it incorporates additional materials that are synthesized within the cell and then secreted into the extracellular space. This results in the formation of the three-layered structure, with each layer playing a crucial role in maintaining the cell’s integrity, facilitating interactions with neighboring cells, and providing protection against external stressors.

Evolution of Cell Wall

The cell wall, a defining feature in many organisms, has a rich evolutionary history. Its development across various species showcases the intricate pathways and mechanisms that have shaped its current form and function.

  1. Cellulose Cell Walls in Photosynthetic Eukaryotes: In photosynthetic eukaryotes, which include plants and algae, the cellulose-based cell wall played a pivotal role in the evolution of multicellularity, territorialization, and vascularization. The CesA cellulose synthase, responsible for the synthesis of cellulose, has its origins in cyanobacteria. Through the process of endosymbiosis, this enzyme became a part of the Archaeplastida lineage. Further, secondary endosymbiosis events facilitated the transfer of this enzyme, along with arabinogalactan proteins, into brown algae and oomycetes. As plants evolved, they derived various genes from CesA, leading to the emergence of the Csl (cellulose synthase-like) family of proteins and other Ces proteins. In collaboration with a range of glycosyltransferases (GT), these enzymes enabled the formation of more complex chemical structures in the cell wall.
  2. Fungal Cell Wall: The cell wall in fungi is a composite of chitin, glucan, and protein. Interestingly, fungi share the 1,3-β-glucan synthesis pathway with plants. They utilize homologous GT48 family 1,3-Beta-glucan synthases for this purpose, indicating the ancient presence of such an enzyme within eukaryotes. The glycoproteins in fungal cell walls are notably rich in mannose. One hypothesis suggests that the evolution of the fungal cell wall might have been a defense mechanism against viral infections. The proteins embedded in these cell walls are highly variable and are often found in tandem repeats, making them susceptible to homologous recombination. Another theory posits that fungi initially had a chitin-based cell wall and later acquired the GT-48 enzymes for 1,3-β-glucans through horizontal gene transfer. However, the exact pathway leading to the synthesis of 1,6-β-glucan remains elusive.

Therefore, the evolution of the cell wall across different organisms is a testament to nature’s adaptability and innovation. From the cellulose-rich walls of plants to the chitin-based structures in fungi, the cell wall’s development has been shaped by various evolutionary pressures and events, resulting in the diverse and complex structures we observe today.

Types of Cell Wall

The cell wall, a defining feature in many organisms, varies in its composition and structure across different types of organisms. Based on its composition, the cell wall can be categorized into five primary types: plant, fungal, bacterial, archaeal, and algal.

  1. Plant Cell Wall: The predominant component of the plant cell wall is cellulose, which forms its skeletal structure. Interwoven with cellulose are other components such as pectin, lignin, and hemicellulose. These elements collectively give rise to two distinct layers in the plant cell wall: the primary and secondary cell walls. The secondary cell wall is especially rich in lignin. These layers serve dual purposes: they provide structural support to cells and act as protective barriers, ensuring the cell’s integrity in both young and mature plant cells.
  2. Fungal Cell Wall: Chitin is the primary constituent of the fungal cell wall. This polysaccharide is structurally similar to cellulose, but with a key difference: the hydroxyl group in cellulose is replaced by an acetyl amine group in chitin. Notably, chitin is not exclusive to fungi; it also forms the exoskeleton of arthropods.
  3. Bacterial Cell Wall: The defining component of the bacterial cell wall is peptidoglycan. The concentration of peptidoglycan determines the classification of bacteria into two groups: Gram-negative (which stain red and contain about 10% peptidoglycan) and Gram-positive (which stain purple and are composed of approximately 90% peptidoglycan). Peptidoglycan is a complex molecule, consisting of polysaccharide-glycan chains interconnected by amino acids.
  4. Archaeal Cell Wall: While they might seem similar to bacterial cell walls, many archaeal cell walls are distinct and composed of pseudo-peptidoglycan. This component bears resemblance to peptidoglycan but has unique structural differences.
  5. Algal Cell Wall: Algal cell walls share some similarities with plant cell walls, primarily in their cellulose content. However, they also contain other polysaccharides, such as mannan and xylan. Additionally, specific components are unique to certain algal groups. For instance, brown algae possess alginic acid in their cell walls, while diatoms have silica.

The Plant Cell Wall

Plant Cell Wall Structure
Plant Cell Wall Structure

The plant cell wall is a complex and multifaceted structure that plays a crucial role in the growth, development, and protection of plant cells. Comprising multiple layers, each with its distinct composition and function, the cell wall is pivotal in maintaining the structural integrity of plant cells and facilitating various physiological processes.

  1. Layers of the Plant Cell Wall: The plant cell wall can be broadly categorized into three primary layers:
    • Middle Lamella: This is the outermost layer that acts as a binding agent between adjacent plant cells. Rich in pectins, the middle lamella ensures that cells remain glued together, facilitating tissue cohesion.
    • Primary Cell Wall: Positioned between the middle lamella and the plasma membrane, the primary cell wall is a dynamic structure that forms during the growth phase of the cell. It is predominantly composed of cellulose microfibrils, which are embedded in a matrix of hemicellulose fibers and pectin polysaccharides. This composition imparts both strength and flexibility to the cell, allowing for expansion during growth.
    • Secondary Cell Wall: Not all plant cells possess this layer. However, when present, it forms between the primary cell wall and the plasma membrane, post the cell’s growth phase. This layer is more rigid, providing additional strength and support to the cell. It often contains lignin, which not only strengthens the cell wall but also aids in water conductivity, especially in vascular tissue cells.
  2. Composition of the Plant Cell Wall: The primary constituents of the plant cell wall include cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. Cellulose microfibrils, produced at the plasma membrane, are the primary structural components, held together by hydrogen bonds, ensuring tensile strength. The gelatinous matrix, comprising hemicellulose fibers and pectin polysaccharides, provides flexibility and support. In certain cells, the secondary cell wall may also contain lignin, enhancing its rigidity.
  3. Functions of the Plant Cell Wall: Besides providing structural support, the plant cell wall serves several other vital functions:
    • Protection: The cell wall acts as a protective barrier, safeguarding the cell from mechanical stress and potential pathogens.
    • Regulation of Growth: The primary cell wall is flexible, allowing for cell expansion during growth. Conversely, the secondary cell wall, being more rigid, provides stability post the growth phase.
    • Communication: Through structures called plasmodesmata, which are channels traversing the cell wall, cells can communicate and exchange substances.
    • Storage: Certain cell walls act as reservoirs, storing carbohydrates that can be metabolized during the plant’s growth.

Therefore, the plant cell wall, with its intricate structure and diverse functions, is fundamental to the survival and thriving of plant cells. Its composition and layers are tailored to meet the specific needs of the plant, ensuring growth, protection, and communication.

Fungal Cell Walls

The fungal cell wall is a distinctive structure that differentiates fungi from other organisms. It serves as a protective barrier, provides structural support, and plays a role in interaction with the environment. The composition of the fungal cell wall is unique and complex, consisting of several key components.

  1. Chitin: Chitin is a primary component of the fungal cell wall. It comprises polymers that mainly consist of unbranched chains of β-(1,4)-linked-N-Acetylglucosamine. This component is predominantly found in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota groups of fungi. In contrast, the Zygomycota group contains poly-β-(1,4)-linked-N-Acetylglucosamine, known as chitosan. Both chitin and chitosan are synthesized and extruded at the plasma membrane, playing a crucial role in providing rigidity to the cell wall.
  2. Glucans: Glucans are glucose polymers that serve to cross-link chitin or chitosan polymers, enhancing the structural integrity of the cell wall. There are two main types of glucans:
    • β-glucans: These are glucose molecules linked via β-(1,3)- or β-(1,6)- bonds. They contribute to the rigidity of the cell wall.
    • α-glucans: Defined by α-(1,3)- and/or α-(1,4) bonds, α-glucans function as part of the matrix, providing flexibility and adaptability to the cell wall.
  3. Proteins: The fungal cell wall contains various proteins, including enzymes essential for cell wall synthesis and lysis. Additionally, structural proteins are present, most of which are glycosylated and contain mannose. Due to this mannose content, these proteins are often referred to as mannoproteins or mannans.

It’s essential to note that while many organisms have been classified as “fungi” in the past, not all possess the characteristic fungal cell wall. For instance, groups like Oomycete and Myxogastria have been reclassified outside the Kingdom Fungi due to significant biochemical differences in their cell wall composition. True fungi, characterized by the presence of chitin and absence of cellulose in their cell walls, stand distinct in their structural and biochemical makeup.

Therefore, the fungal cell wall, with its unique composition of chitin, glucans, and proteins, is fundamental to the survival, growth, and function of fungi. It not only provides protection and structural support but also plays a pivotal role in the fungi’s interaction with its environment.

Bacterial Cell Wall

The bacterial cell wall is a crucial structure that provides protection, shape, and rigidity to bacterial cells. Unlike the cell walls of plants and fungi, which are composed of cellulose and chitin respectively, the bacterial cell wall is primarily made up of a unique substance known as peptidoglycan or murein.

  1. Composition of Peptidoglycan: Peptidoglycan is a complex molecule composed of polysaccharide chains that are cross-linked by unusual peptides containing D-amino acids. Specifically, the structure of peptidoglycan consists of alternating sugar components, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid. Attached to the N-acetylmuramic acid molecules are amino acid chains. These subunits form polymers, which are then cross-linked to each other through peptide bridges, resulting in the formation of robust peptidoglycan sheets. Multiple layers of these sheets are interconnected, creating a multilayered, cross-linked structure that offers significant strength to the bacterial cell.
  2. Gram-Positive vs. Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacterial cell walls can be broadly categorized into two types based on their reaction to the Gram stain: gram-positive and gram-negative.
    • Gram-Positive Bacteria: These bacteria have a thick cell wall containing numerous layers of peptidoglycan and teichoic acids. Teichoic acids are polymers of glycerol or ribitol phosphate combined with various sugars and amino compounds. The substantial peptidoglycan layer in gram-positive bacteria gives them their characteristic reaction to the Gram stain.
    • Gram-Negative Bacteria: In contrast, gram-negative bacteria possess a relatively thin cell wall with fewer layers of peptidoglycan. This cell wall is surrounded by a second lipid membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides and lipoproteins. This unique structure results in different antibiotic susceptibilities between the two types of bacteria.
  3. Antibiotic Susceptibility: The structure and composition of the bacterial cell wall play a pivotal role in determining the susceptibility of bacteria to various antibiotics. For instance, beta-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillin, target the cross-linking of peptidoglycan, leading to a weakened cell wall and eventual lysis of the bacterial cell. However, these antibiotics are primarily effective against gram-negative pathogens. On the other hand, glycopeptide antibiotics, which target gram-positive pathogens, function by inhibiting cell wall synthesis.

In conclusion, the bacterial cell wall, with its unique composition of peptidoglycan, serves as a protective barrier and provides structural support to bacterial cells. Its distinct characteristics also influence the interaction of bacteria with various antibiotics, making it a crucial target in the fight against bacterial infections.

Archaeal cell walls

Archaea, one of the three primary domains of life, possess distinct cell walls that differentiate them from other organisms. Unlike the peptidoglycan-based cell walls found in bacteria, archaeal cell walls exhibit a diverse range of compositions.

  1. Pseudopeptidoglycan Cell Walls: One of the primary types of archaeal cell walls is composed of pseudopeptidoglycan, also referred to as pseudomurein. This type of cell wall is predominantly found in certain methanogens, such as Methanobacterium and Methanothermus. While pseudopeptidoglycan shares a structural resemblance with bacterial peptidoglycan, it has distinct chemical variations. For instance, in pseudopeptidoglycan, the sugar N-acetylmuramic acid is replaced by N-acetyltalosaminuronic acid. Furthermore, the glycosidic linkage between the sugars is β,1-3, contrasting with the β,1-4 linkage in bacterial peptidoglycan. Additionally, the peptides that cross-link the glycan chains in pseudopeptidoglycan are composed of L-amino acids, unlike the D-amino acids found in bacteria.
  2. Polysaccharide Cell Walls: Another type of archaeal cell wall is primarily composed of polysaccharides. This composition is observed in organisms like Methanosarcina and Halococcus. In certain cases, such as Halococcus, the polysaccharides may even be sulfated. The exact structure of these polysaccharide walls remains intricate and warrants further investigation.
  3. Glycoprotein Cell Walls: A distinct type of cell wall, composed entirely of glycoproteins, is found in specific archaeal species, including hyperthermophiles, Halobacterium, and some methanogens. For instance, in Halobacterium, the wall proteins are rich in acidic amino acids, imparting a negative charge to the wall. This negative charge is neutralized by the presence of sodium ions, enabling Halobacterium to thrive in high-salinity environments.
  4. S-layer Protein Walls: In certain Archaea, such as Methanomicrobium and Desulfurococcus, the cell wall may solely consist of surface-layer proteins, commonly referred to as the S-layer. While S-layers are also found in bacteria, in Archaea, they can either serve as the only cell wall component or act in conjunction with other substances like polysaccharides.

Algae cell walls

Algae, akin to plants, are equipped with cell walls that provide structural support and protection to the cell. The composition of these cell walls is diverse and can be used as a distinguishing feature in algal taxonomy.

  1. Polysaccharides and Glycoproteins: The primary constituents of algal cell walls are polysaccharides, such as cellulose, and in some cases, glycoproteins. Cellulose, a type of glucan, forms the foundational structure in many algal cell walls. However, certain algae, specifically those from the Volvocales order, have cell walls that predominantly contain glycoproteins.
  2. Mannans: Mannans are specialized polysaccharides that form microfibrils in the cell walls of specific marine green algae. Examples of such algae include genera like Codium, Dasycladus, and Acetabularia. Additionally, some red algae, such as Porphyra and Bangia, also incorporate mannans in their cell walls.
  3. Xylans: Xylans are another category of polysaccharides found in algal cell walls, though their specific role and distribution are not detailed in the provided content.
  4. Alginic Acid: Predominantly found in brown algae, alginic acid is a unique polysaccharide that contributes to the structural integrity of the cell wall.
  5. Sulfonated Polysaccharides: These are common components in the cell walls of most algae. In red algae, specific sulfonated polysaccharides such as agarose, carrageenan, porphyran, furcelleran, and funoran are prevalent.
  6. Silica Frustules in Diatoms: A distinct group of algae, known as diatoms, construct their cell walls from silicic acid, resulting in silica-based structures termed frustules or valves. The synthesis of silica frustules is energy-efficient, consuming approximately 8% of the cell’s energy budget. This energy efficiency might contribute to the observed higher growth rates in diatoms.
  7. Phlorotannins in Brown Algae: In certain brown algae, phlorotannins might be integrated into the cell walls, though their specific function is not elaborated upon in the provided content.

In conclusion, the cell walls of algae are complex and multifaceted, with their composition varying across different algal groups. These variations not only provide structural support but also play a pivotal role in the taxonomy and classification of algae.

Functions of Cell Wall

The cell wall, a defining feature of many organisms, plays a multitude of roles that are crucial for the survival, growth, and development of the cell. Its functions can be broadly categorized as follows:

  1. Support and Shape: One of the primary roles of the cell wall is to provide mechanical support to the cell. This support ensures that the cell maintains its characteristic shape, such as the rectangular form observed in many plant cells. Besides providing shape, the cell wall also imparts rigidity, ensuring that the cell remains erect and maintains its structural integrity.
  2. Protection: The cell wall acts as a protective barrier, safeguarding the cell from potential threats. This includes protection against foreign agents like plant pathogens, viruses, and other harmful entities. Moreover, the cell wall offers resistance against mechanical stress and physical shocks, ensuring the cell’s survival in challenging environments. The proteins embedded in the cell wall play a pivotal role in this protective function, especially in preventing cell rupture due to turgor pressure, which is the pressure exerted by the cell’s contents against the cell wall.
  3. Regulation of Growth and Diffusion: The cell wall is not a static structure; it actively participates in regulating cell growth. It controls the direction of this growth and can send signals prompting the cell to enter the cell cycle, leading to cell division. Additionally, its porous nature allows it to regulate the diffusion of substances. While it permits certain molecules, including some proteins, to enter the cell, it acts as a barrier for others, ensuring selective permeability.
  4. Cell Signaling and Communication: Embedded within the cell wall are proteins that span the plasma membrane. These proteins play a crucial role in transmitting signals from the cell wall to the cytoplasm, facilitating cell signaling. Furthermore, structures known as plasmodesmata, which are pores in the cell wall, enable communication between adjacent cells. This cell-cell communication is vital for coordinated functioning in plant tissues.
  5. Protection Against Environmental Factors: The cell wall acts as a shield against various environmental factors. It helps prevent water loss from the cell, ensuring that the cell remains hydrated. Additionally, it provides a barrier against plant viruses and other pathogens, further enhancing the cell’s defense mechanisms.
  6. Storage: Beyond its structural and protective roles, the cell wall also serves as a storage unit. It stores carbohydrates, which can be utilized for plant growth, especially in seeds.

Cell Wall vs. Cell Membrane

In the realm of cellular biology, the cell wall and the cell membrane are two distinct structures that play vital roles in the protection, support, and functioning of the cell. While both are essential, they differ in several key aspects, from their composition to their specific roles.

1. Location and Structure:

  • Cell Wall: The cell wall is the outermost layer of cells in plants, fungi, protists, and bacteria. It is positioned immediately outside the cell membrane. Depending on the organism, the cell wall can be thick (as in plants) or relatively thin.
  • Cell Membrane: Also known as the plasma membrane, it is a bilipid layer that surrounds the cell’s contents, including the cytosol and organelles. Every cell, regardless of the presence or absence of a cell wall, has a cell membrane.

2. Composition:

  • Cell Wall: The components of the cell wall vary depending on the species. For instance, plant cell walls are primarily made of cellulose, fungal cell walls consist of chitin, and bacterial cell walls are composed of peptidoglycan.
  • Cell Membrane: This membrane is made up of a lipid bilayer interspersed with proteins. Carbohydrates and lipoproteins are also associated with the cell membrane, playing roles in cell recognition and signaling.

3. Function:

  • Cell Wall: Its primary function is to provide rigidity and structural support to the cell. It also offers protection against external stresses and helps in maintaining cell shape. In plants, the cell wall also plays a role in preventing excessive water uptake.
  • Cell Membrane: The cell membrane regulates the passage of substances in and out of the cell. It is selectively permeable, ensuring that essential nutrients enter the cell while waste products are expelled. It also plays a role in cell signaling due to the presence of cell surface receptors.

4. Permeability:

  • Cell Wall: Generally, the cell wall is more permeable to small molecules. However, its primary role is not to regulate substance passage but to provide structural support.
  • Cell Membrane: The cell membrane is semi-permeable. It selectively allows certain molecules to pass through while blocking others, ensuring the cell’s internal environment remains stable.

5. Presence:

  • Cell Wall: Found in plants, fungi, certain protists (like algae and molds), and bacteria.
  • Cell Membrane: Present in all cells, including those of animals, plants, fungi, protists, and bacteria.

In conclusion, while both the cell wall and the cell membrane are integral to the cell’s survival and function, they serve distinct roles. The cell wall primarily provides structural support, especially in plants and fungi, whereas the cell membrane is crucial for regulating the internal environment of the cell and facilitating communication with the external environment.

FeatureCell WallCell Membrane
Location and StructureOutermost layer in plants, fungi, protists, and bacteria. Positioned outside the cell membrane.Bilipid layer surrounding the cell’s contents. Present in all cells.
CompositionVaries by species: cellulose (plants), chitin (fungi), peptidoglycan (bacteria).Lipid bilayer interspersed with proteins. Associated with carbohydrates and lipoproteins.
FunctionProvides rigidity, structural support, and protection. Helps maintain cell shape.Regulates passage of substances in and out of the cell. Plays a role in cell signaling due to cell surface receptors.
PermeabilityMore permeable to small molecules. Not primarily for substance regulation.Semi-permeable. Selectively allows certain molecules to pass while blocking others.
PresenceFound in plants, fungi, certain protists, and bacteria.Present in all cells, including animals, plants, fungi, protists, and bacteria.

Gram-Positive Vs. Gram-negative Bacteria

Bacteria, as microscopic single-celled organisms, exhibit diverse structural features that play crucial roles in their survival and function. One of the distinguishing characteristics of bacteria is the composition and structure of their cell walls. The bacterial cell wall not only maintains the shape of the bacteria, especially in rod-shaped varieties, but also protects the cell membrane, aids in nutrient acquisition, and serves several other functions.

A unique component of the bacterial cell wall is peptidoglycan, a substance not found in any other organisms. This peptidoglycan is composed of glucose derivatives, specifically N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM), which are cross-linked by a tetrapeptide. This tetrapeptide is a complex molecule made up of four amino acids: D-glutamine, D-alanine, D-glutamine, and L-lysine.

Gram-Positive Bacteria:

Gram-Positive Bacteria Cell Wall Structure
Gram-Positive Bacteria Cell Wall Structure

The cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria is characterized by a high concentration of peptidoglycan, which can constitute up to 90% of the cell wall. This dense layer of peptidoglycan is cross-linked with a peptide interbridge, resulting in a robust cell wall structure. Besides peptidoglycan, the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria also contains teichoic acid, a glycopolymer. This molecule serves several functions:

  • Generates the necessary negative charge for developing a proton motive force.
  • Enhances the rigidity of the wall.
  • Supports cell division.
  • Offers protection against extreme environmental conditions.

Gram-Negative Bacteria:

Gram Negative Bacteria Cell Wall Structure
Gram Negative Bacteria Cell Wall Structure

In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria have a cell wall with a significantly thinner peptidoglycan layer, making up only about 8% of the total cell wall. However, the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria is more intricate. Key components include:

  • An outer membrane: This membrane surrounds the thin peptidoglycan layer. It possesses many typical membrane characteristics but is distinguished by the presence of lipopolysaccharide molecules. These molecules serve to:
    • Contribute to the cell’s negative charge.
    • Protect the cell’s internal contents.
    • Stabilize the membrane.
  • Lipid A: This component acts as an endotoxin.
  • Porins: These are transmembrane proteins that form pores on the membrane, allowing for substance transport.

In summary, while both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria possess peptidoglycan in their cell walls, they differ significantly in its concentration and the presence of other components. Gram-positive bacteria have a thicker peptidoglycan layer, while Gram-negative bacteria have a more complex cell wall with an outer membrane and additional components like lipopolysaccharides. These structural differences have implications for their staining properties, antibiotic resistance, and interactions with their environment.

Feature/ComponentGram-Positive BacteriaGram-negative Bacteria
Peptidoglycan ConcentrationHigh (up to 90% of the cell wall)Low (about 8% of the total cell wall)
Cell Wall ThicknessThickThin
Teichoic AcidPresentAbsent
Functions of Teichoic Acid– Generates negative charge for proton motive force
– Enhances wall rigidity
– Supports cell division
– Protects against extreme conditions
N/A
Outer MembraneAbsentPresent, distinguished by lipopolysaccharide molecules
Lipopolysaccharide FunctionsN/A– Contributes to cell’s negative charge
– Protects internal contents
– Stabilizes the membrane
Lipid AAbsentActs as an endotoxin
PorinsAbsentPresent, forming pores on the membrane for substance transport

Quiz

Cell Wall Related Viva Questions Answers

  1. What does the cell wall do?
    • The cell wall provides structural support and protection to a cell. It helps maintain cell shape and prevents it from bursting due to osmotic pressure.
  2. Do animal cells have a cell wall?
    • No, animal cells do not have a cell wall. They typically have a flexible cell membrane or plasma membrane.
  3. What is a cell wall?
    • A cell wall is a rigid outer layer that surrounds the cell membrane in some cells, providing structural support and protection.
  4. What is the function of the cell wall?
    • The primary function of the cell wall is to maintain cell shape, offer protection, and regulate the passage of substances into and out of the cell.
  5. Do bacteria have cell walls?
    • Yes, many bacteria have cell walls. Bacterial cell walls can vary in composition; some have peptidoglycan walls, while others have different structures.
  6. Do fungi have cell walls?
    • Yes, fungi have cell walls. Fungal cell walls are primarily composed of a complex sugar called chitin.
  7. Do prokaryotes have a cell wall?
    • Yes, many prokaryotes, including bacteria, have cell walls. The composition of these cell walls can differ among prokaryotic species.
  8. Do eukaryotes have a cell wall?
    • Some eukaryotes, such as plants, fungi, and certain protists, have cell walls. Animal cells, which are also eukaryotic, do not have cell walls.
  9. Do protists have cell walls?
    • Some protists have cell walls, while others do not. The presence and composition of cell walls in protists vary.
  10. Does an animal cell have a cell wall?
    • No, animal cells do not have a cell wall.
  11. Do animals have cell walls?
    • No, animals as multicellular organisms do not have cell walls. Individual animal cells have a plasma membrane instead.
  12. Do plant cells have a cell wall?
  13. What is the cell wall made of?
    • The composition of cell walls varies depending on the organism. In plants, it’s primarily made of cellulose, while in fungi, it’s made of chitin. Bacterial cell walls can contain peptidoglycan.
  14. Do prokaryotes have cell walls?
    • Yes, many prokaryotes, such as bacteria, have cell walls.
  15. Does a plant have a cell wall?
    • Yes, plants have cell walls. These cell walls provide structural support to plant cells.
  16. Do viruses have a cell wall?
    • No, viruses do not have cell walls. They are much simpler structures compared to cells and lack many cellular components.
  17. Do archaea have cell walls?
    • Yes, some archaea have cell walls, but their cell wall composition is different from that of bacteria.
  18. How does the cell wall protect a plant cell?
    • The cell wall provides physical protection and helps prevent the plant cell from bursting due to turgor pressure. It also acts as a barrier against pathogens.
  19. What are bacterial cell walls made of?
    • Bacterial cell walls are often made of a polymer called peptidoglycan.
  20. What are cell walls made of?
    • Cell walls are made of various materials depending on the organism. These materials can include cellulose, chitin, peptidoglycan, and other complex carbohydrates.
  21. What are fungi cell walls made of?
    • Fungal cell walls are primarily composed of chitin, which is a complex sugar.
  22. What do cell walls do?
    • Cell walls provide structural support, maintain cell shape, offer protection, and regulate the passage of substances into and out of the cell.
  23. What is fungal cell wall made of?
    • Fungal cell walls are primarily made of chitin.
  24. What is plant cell wall made of?
  25. Where is the cell wall located?
    • The cell wall is located outside the cell membrane, serving as an outer layer surrounding the cell.
  26. Do algae have cell walls?
    • Yes, many algae have cell walls. The composition can vary among different types of algae.
  27. Do all bacteria have cell walls?
    • No, not all bacteria have cell walls. Some bacterial species have cell walls with different compositions or may lack cell walls altogether.
  28. Do human cells have cell walls?
    • No, human cells do not have cell walls. They are eukaryotic cells with a plasma membrane instead.
  29. Why do plant cells have a cell wall?
    • Plant cells have cell walls to provide structural support and protection, allowing them to maintain their shape and withstand osmotic pressure.
  30. Do all cells have cell walls?
    • No, not all cells have cell walls. Only certain types of cells, such as plant cells, fungal cells, and many prokaryotic cells, possess cell walls.
  31. Do all prokaryotes have a cell wall?
    • No, not all prokaryotes have cell walls. The presence and composition of cell walls can vary among prokaryotic species.
  32. Does archaebacteria have a cell wall?
    • Some archaea have cell walls, but the composition differs from bacterial cell walls.
  33. Does a human have a cell wall?
    • No, humans do not have cell walls. Human cells are eukaryotic and have plasma membranes.
  34. Do fungi have a cell wall?
    • Yes, fungi have cell walls, primarily composed of chitin.
  35. Do prokaryotic cells have cell walls?
    • Many prokaryotic cells, such as bacteria, have cell walls. These cell walls can vary in composition.
  36. Does amoeba have a cell wall?
    • No, amoebas do not have a cell wall. They are eukaryotic cells with a flexible plasma membrane.
  37. Does animalia have a cell wall?
    • No, the animal kingdom (Animalia) does not have cell walls. Animal cells typically have plasma membranes.
  38. Is the cell wall an organelle?
    • No, the cell wall is not considered an organelle. Organelles are membrane-bound structures within cells, while the cell wall is an external structure.
  39. What has a cell wall?
    • Cell walls are found in some prokaryotic cells (e.g., bacteria) and certain eukaryotic cells (e.g., plant cells and fungal cells).
  40. What is a plant cell wall made of?
  41. What type of cells have cell walls?
    • Plant cells and fungal cells are examples of eukaryotic cells with cell walls. Many prokaryotic cells, such as bacteria, also have cell walls.
  42. What types of cells have cell walls?
    • Cells that have cell walls include plant cells, fungal cells, and many prokaryotic cells like bacteria.
  43. Why do plant cells have cell walls?
    • Plant cells have cell walls to provide structural support, maintain shape, and withstand turgor pressure, which is crucial for plant growth and stability.
  44. Are cell walls in plant and animal cells?
    • No, cell walls are not present in animal cells. They are found in plant cells but not in animal cells.
  45. Do animal cells have cell wall?
    • No, animal cells do not have cell walls. They have a plasma membrane instead.
  46. Do fungi have cell wall?
    • Yes, fungi have cell walls, primarily composed of chitin.
  47. Do gram-negative bacteria have a cell wall?
    • Yes, gram-negative bacteria have cell walls. Their cell walls contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan surrounded by an outer membrane.
  48. Do paramecium have cell walls?
    • No, paramecium do not have cell walls. They are ciliates and have a flexible plasma membrane.
  49. Do plants have a cell wall?
    • Yes, plants have cell walls, which provide support and protection to plant cells.
  50. Do protista have cell walls?
    • Some protists have cell walls, while others do not. The presence and composition of cell walls can vary among protists.
  51. Does paramecium have a cell wall?
    • No, paramecium do not have cell walls. They have a flexible plasma membrane.
  52. Does prokaryotes have a cell wall?
    • Yes, many prokaryotic cells, including bacteria, have cell walls.
  53. Is a cell wall in plant and animal cells?
    • No, cell walls are not found in animal cells. They are present in plant cells but not in animal cells.
  54. Is the cell wall prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
    • The cell wall can be found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, but the composition and structure of cell walls differ between these two groups.
  55. Is the cell wall in plant and animal cells?
    • Cell walls are present in plant cells but not in animal cells.
  56. What are bacteria cell walls made of?
    • Bacterial cell walls are often made of a polymer called peptidoglycan.
  57. What are the thick-walled cells of botulism bacteria called?
    • The thick-walled, dormant cells of botulism bacteria are called endospores.
  58. What do the cell wall do?
    • The cell wall provides structural support, maintains cell shape, offers protection, and regulates the passage of substances into and out of the cell.
  59. What has cell walls?
    • Cell walls are found in some prokaryotic cells (e.g., bacteria) and certain eukaryotic cells (e.g., plant and fungal cells).
  60. What is plant cell wall made of?
  61. What is the cell wall’s function?
    • The primary function of the cell wall is to provide structural support and protection to the cell.
  62. What is the purpose of a cell wall?
    • The purpose of a cell wall is to maintain cell shape, provide support, and protect the cell from external factors.
  63. What type of cell has a cell wall?
    • Plant cells and fungal cells are examples of cells with cell walls.
  64. Where are cell walls found?
    • Cell walls are located outside the cell membrane, surrounding the cell.
  65. Where is the cell wall found?
    • The cell wall is found outside the cell membrane, serving as an outer layer.
  66. Which carbohydrate is found in the cell walls of plants?
    • The carbohydrate found in the cell walls of plants is cellulose.
  67. Which cells have a cell wall?
    • Cells with cell walls include plant cells, fungal cells, and many prokaryotic cells like bacteria.
  68. Which cells have cell walls?
    • Cells with cell walls include plant cells, fungal cells, and many prokaryotic cells like bacteria.
  69. Do animals have cell wall?
    • No, animals do not have cell walls. They have a plasma membrane instead.
  70. Do plant cells have cell wall?
    • Yes, plant cells have cell walls, which provide structural support.
  71. Do viruses have cell walls?
    • No, viruses do not have cell walls. They are much simpler structures compared to cells and lack many cellular components.
  72. Does a paramecium have a cell wall?
    • No, paramecium do not have cell walls. They have a flexible plasma membrane.
  73. Does animal cell have cell wall?
    • No, animal cells do not have cell walls. They have a plasma membrane instead.
  74. Does fungi have cell wall?
    • Yes, fungi have cell walls, primarily composed of chitin.
  75. Does plantae have a cell wall?
    • Yes, the kingdom Plantae includes organisms with cell walls, primarily plants.
  76. Is a cell wall an organelle?
    • No, the cell wall is not considered an organelle. Organelles are membrane-bound structures within cells, while the cell wall is an external structure.
  77. What is a cell wall?
    • A cell wall is a rigid outer layer that surrounds the cell membrane in some cells, providing structural support and protection.
  78. What are the cell walls of fungi made of?
    • The cell walls of fungi are primarily made of chitin.
  79. What cell has a cell wall?
    • Plant cells and fungal cells are examples of cells with cell walls.
  80. What does the cell wall do for a plant?
    • The cell wall provides structural support, helps maintain cell shape, and protects plant cells from external stress.
  81. What is the definition of a cell wall?
    • A cell wall is a rigid outer layer that surrounds the cell membrane in some cells, providing structural support and protection.
  82. What is the job of the cell wall?
    • The job of the cell wall is to provide structural support, maintain cell shape, and protect the cell.
  83. What is the major component of the plant cell wall?
    • The major component of the plant cell wall is cellulose.
  84. What structure gives rise to new plant cell walls?
    • The cell plate, formed during cell division, gives rise to new plant cell walls.
  85. What’s a cell wall?
    • A cell wall is a rigid outer layer that surrounds the cell membrane in some cells, providing structural support and protection.
  86. Which cell has a cell wall?
    • Plant cells and fungal cells are examples of cells with cell walls.
  87. Which type of cell has a cell wall?
    • Plant cells and fungal cells are types of cells that have cell walls.
  88. Why do plants have cell walls?
    • Plants have cell walls to provide structural support, maintain shape, and withstand turgor pressure, which is crucial for plant growth and stability.
  89. Why is the cell wall important?
    • The cell wall is important because it provides structural support and protection to the cell, helping it maintain its shape and integrity.
  90. A cell wall is the…?
    • A cell wall is the rigid outer layer that surrounds the cell membrane in some cells, providing structural support and protection.
  91. Do fungal cells have cell walls?
    • Yes, fungal cells have cell walls, primarily composed of chitin.
  92. Do humans have a cell wall?
    • No, humans do not have a cell wall. Human cells are eukaryotic and have a plasma membrane instead.
  93. Does a fungal cell have a cell wall?
    • Yes, fungal cells have cell walls, primarily composed of chitin.
  94. Does cell wall have bacteria?
    • I’m not sure I understand this question. Cell walls are found in some bacteria, but they are not “bacteria” themselves.
  95. Does fungi have cell walls?
    • Yes, fungi have cell walls, primarily composed of chitin.
  96. Does Mycoplasma have a cell wall?
    • Mycoplasma is a group of bacteria known for their lack of a typical cell wall. They have a unique cell membrane.
  97. Is a cell wall prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
    • Cell walls can be found in both prokaryotic (e.g., bacterial) and eukaryotic (e.g., plant and fungal) cells, but the composition and structure differ.
  98. Is there a cell wall in animal cells?
    • No, animal cells do not have cell walls. They have a plasma membrane instead.
  99. What does a cell wall do for a cell?
    • A cell wall provides structural support, maintains cell shape, offers protection, and regulates the passage of substances into and out of the cell.
  100. What does cell wall mean?
    • A cell wall is the rigid outer layer that surrounds the cell membrane in some cells, providing structural support and protection.
  101. What does the cell wall do in the cell?
    • The cell wall provides structural support, maintains cell shape, offers protection, and regulates the passage of substances into and out of the cell.
  102. What function do both cell membranes and cell walls perform?
    • Both cell membranes and cell walls provide protection and regulate the passage of substances, but cell walls primarily provide structural support, while cell membranes control transport.
  103. What is a cell wall and what does it do?
    • A cell wall is a rigid outer layer that surrounds the cell membrane in some cells, providing structural support and protection.
  104. What is a cell wall function?
    • The function of a cell wall is to provide structural support, maintain cell shape, offer protection, and regulate the passage of substances into and out of the cell.
  105. What is a cell wall in a cell?
    • A cell wall is a rigid outer layer that surrounds the cell membrane in some cells, providing structural support and protection.
  106. What is a cell wall’s job?
    • The job of a cell wall is to provide structural support, maintain cell shape, and protect the cell.
  107. What is in a cell wall?
    • The composition of a cell wall can vary, but it typically includes carbohydrates like cellulose (in plants) or chitin (in fungi), along with other structural components.
  108. What is the cell wall and what does it do?
    • A cell wall is a rigid outer layer that surrounds the cell membrane in some cells, providing structural support and protection.
  109. What makes up the cell wall?
    • The cell wall is made up of various materials depending on the organism. These materials can include cellulose, chitin, peptidoglycan, and other complex carbohydrates.
  110. What other type of cell has a cell wall?
    • Apart from plant cells, fungal cells, and many prokaryotic cells, some protists may also have cell walls.
  111. What the cell wall does?
    • The cell wall provides structural support, maintains cell shape, offers protection, and regulates the passage of substances into and out of the cell.
  112. What types of cells contain a cell wall?
    • Cells that contain cell walls include plant cells, fungal cells, and many prokaryotic cells like bacteria.
  113. Which one of the following organisms has a cell wall?
    • Plants have cell walls.
  114. Why do animal cells not have a cell wall?
    • Animal cells do not have cell walls because they have evolved different mechanisms for structural support and flexibility, primarily relying on the plasma membrane.
  115. A carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of plants?
    • The carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of plants is cellulose.
  116. A plant cell wall?
    • A plant cell wall is the rigid outer layer surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, primarily composed of cellulose.
  117. Do animalia have cell walls?
    • No, the animal kingdom (Animalia) does not have cell walls. Animal cells typically have plasma membranes.
  118. Do bacteria have cell wall?
    • Many bacteria have cell walls, but the composition can vary among different bacterial species.
  119. Do eukaryotic cells have cell walls?
    • Some eukaryotic cells, such as plant cells and fungal cells, have cell walls. However, many eukaryotic cells, like animal cells, do not have cell walls.
  120. Do plants have cell wall?
    • Yes, plants have cell walls, which provide structural support and protection to plant cells.
  121. Do protoctists have a cell wall?
    • Some protists have cell walls, while others do not. The presence and composition of cell walls can vary among protists.
  122. Does a bacterial cell have a cell wall?
    • Many bacterial cells have cell walls, with the composition varying among different bacterial species.
  123. Does a prokaryotic cell have a cell wall?
    • Many prokaryotic cells, including bacteria, have cell walls, but not all prokaryotes have cell walls.
  124. Does animal cells have a cell wall?
    • No, animal cells do not have cell walls. They have a plasma membrane instead.
  125. Does archaea have a cell wall?
    • Some archaea have cell walls, but the composition differs from bacterial cell walls.
  126. Does eukaryotes have a cell wall?
    • Eukaryotic cells can have cell walls, but it depends on the specific type of eukaryote. Plant cells and fungal cells are examples of eukaryotic cells with cell walls.
  127. Does paramecium have cell wall?
    • No, paramecium do not have cell walls. They have a flexible plasma membrane.
  128. Does plants have cell walls?
    • Yes, plants have cell walls, which provide structural support and protection to plant cells.
  129. Is the cell wall prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
    • Cell walls can be found in both prokaryotic (e.g., bacterial) and eukaryotic (e.g., plant and fungal) cells, but the composition and structure differ.
  130. Is there a cell wall in animal cells?
    • No, cell walls are not present in animal cells. They are found in plant cells but not in animal cells.
  131. What are cell walls made out of?
    • Cell walls are made out of various materials depending on the organism. These materials can include cellulose, chitin, peptidoglycan, and other complex carbohydrates.
  132. What cells have cell wall?
    • Cells that have cell walls include plant cells, fungal cells, and many prokaryotic cells like bacteria.
  133. What is function of a cell wall?
    • The function of a cell wall is to provide structural support, maintain cell shape, offer protection, and regulate the passage of substances into and out of the cell.
  134. What is fungi cell wall made of?
    • Fungal cell walls are primarily made of chitin.

References

  1. Bruce D. Kohorn. (2000). Plasma Membrane-Cell Wall Contacts. Published September 2000. DOI.
  2. C.T. Brett and K.W. Waldron. (1996). Physiology and Biochemistry of Plant Cell Walls.
  3. Nicholas C. Carpita, Malcolm Campbell, Mary Tierney. (2001). Plant Cell Walls.
  4. Ruiqin Zhong, Zheng-Hua Ye. (2015). Secondary Cell Walls: Biosynthesis, Patterned Deposition and Transcriptional Regulation. Plant and Cell Physiology, Volume 56, Issue 2, February 2015, Pages 195–214.
  5. Jasna Stevanic Srndovic. (2008). Ultrastructure Of The Primary Cell Wall Of Softwood Fibres Studied Using Dynamic Ft-Ir Spectroscopy.

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What is Karyotyping? What are the scope of Microbiology? What is DNA Library? What is Simple Staining? What is Negative Staining? What is Western Blot? What are Transgenic Plants? Breakthrough Discovery: Crystal Cells in Fruit Flies Key to Oxygen Transport What is Northern Blotting? What is Southern Blotting?
What is Karyotyping? What are the scope of Microbiology? What is DNA Library? What is Simple Staining? What is Negative Staining? What is Western Blot? What are Transgenic Plants? Breakthrough Discovery: Crystal Cells in Fruit Flies Key to Oxygen Transport What is Northern Blotting? What is Southern Blotting?
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