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DNA Sequencing – Definition, Principle, Steps, Types, Applications

What is DNA Sequencing?

  • DNA sequencing is a fundamental process that involves determining the precise order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. The nucleotides, namely adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, make up the genetic code and provide vital information about an organism’s traits and characteristics. With the advent of rapid DNA sequencing methods, this scientific technique has revolutionized various fields such as biology, medicine, biotechnology, forensics, virology, and systematics.
  • In basic biological research, DNA sequencing has become an indispensable tool. It enables scientists to unravel the mysteries of life by studying the genetic information encoded in DNA. It has played a pivotal role in projects like the DNA Genographic Project, which aims to trace the migratory history of humans. Moreover, DNA sequencing is widely employed in applied fields like medical diagnosis, where it helps identify genetic mutations associated with various diseases, including different types of cancers. By comparing healthy and mutated DNA sequences, healthcare professionals can accurately diagnose diseases and develop tailored treatment plans for patients.
  • Additionally, DNA sequencing has found applications in characterizing antibody repertoires, enabling a deeper understanding of the immune system and the development of targeted therapies. The rapid speed of DNA sequencing technologies has facilitated the sequencing of complete genomes, including the human genome and genomes of various animal, plant, and microbial species. This breakthrough has significantly advanced our knowledge of the genetic makeup of diverse organisms, paving the way for advancements in fields such as evolutionary biology, agriculture, and conservation.
  • The journey of DNA sequencing began in the early 1970s when researchers used labor-intensive methods based on two-dimensional chromatography to obtain the first DNA sequences. However, the development of fluorescence-based sequencing methods, coupled with DNA sequencers, has revolutionized the field. These modern techniques have made DNA sequencing easier, more efficient, and orders of magnitude faster. Researchers can now obtain comprehensive DNA sequences in a fraction of the time it used to take, allowing for faster scientific discoveries, personalized medicine, and the identification and cataloging of a greater number of organisms.
  • In conclusion, DNA sequencing is a vital process that enables scientists to decipher the genetic code and unravel the secrets of life. It has transformed various fields by providing insights into fundamental biological processes, enabling medical advancements, and facilitating the exploration of genetic diversity. With the continuous advancements in DNA sequencing technologies, we can expect further breakthroughs that will shape the future of biology, medicine, and beyond.

Definition of DNA Sequencing

DNA sequencing refers to the techniques used to determine the order of the nucleotide bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine within a DNA molecule.

Methods of DNA Sequencing

DNA sequencing is a crucial technique used in various fields of biological research, allowing scientists to unravel the genetic information encoded within DNA molecules. Two primary methods, the Chemical Method and the Chain Termination Method, have been widely employed for DNA sequencing.

  1. The Chemical Method: The Chemical Method, also referred to as the Maxam-Gilbert method, derives its name from the scientists who developed it. This technique relies on the varying chemical reactivity of nucleotide bonds to determine the DNA sequence. In this method, the DNA molecule is fragmented into smaller fragments, and each fragment is subjected to specific chemical reactions. These reactions target specific nucleotide bonds, causing them to break. By analyzing the pattern of bond breakage, researchers can deduce the sequence of nucleotides in the original DNA molecule.
  2. The Chain Termination Method: On the other hand, the Chain Termination Method, commonly known as the Sanger dideoxy method, was pioneered by Frederick Sanger. This method has gained popularity due to its simplicity and speed. It involves the enzymatic replication of DNA molecules in the presence of dideoxynucleotides (ddNTPs). These ddNTPs lack a hydroxyl group at their 3′ end, which prevents further extension of the DNA chain. The replication process generates a series of DNA fragments of varying lengths that correspond to the positions where the ddNTPs were incorporated. By separating these fragments based on their size and analyzing them, the DNA sequence can be determined.

While both methods have been instrumental in DNA sequencing, the Chain Termination Method has become the preferred choice for most applications. Its efficiency, relatively low cost, and compatibility with automated systems make it the go-to technique for large-scale DNA sequencing projects. By utilizing fluorescently labeled ddNTPs and high-throughput sequencing platforms, scientists can rapidly sequence DNA fragments, enabling comprehensive analysis of genomes and identification of genetic variations.

In conclusion, DNA sequencing plays a pivotal role in unlocking the mysteries of life encoded within DNA molecules. The Chemical Method and the Chain Termination Method are two well-established techniques used for this purpose. Although the Chemical Method exploits the chemical reactivity of nucleotide bonds, the Chain Termination Method is widely preferred due to its simplicity and speed. With advancements in sequencing technologies, DNA sequencing has become more accessible, revolutionizing various fields such as medicine, agriculture, and evolutionary biology.

Chemical Cleavage Method (Maxam–Gilbert Method)

  • The Maxam-Gilbert method, also known as the chemical cleavage method, is a pioneering technique developed by Allan Maxam and Walter Gilbert in 1976-1977 for DNA sequencing. It involves the chemical modification and subsequent cleavage of DNA at specific bases, allowing scientists to determine the sequence of nucleotides in a DNA molecule.
  • The first step of the Maxam-Gilbert method involves the labeling of one end of the DNA fragment to be sequenced with a radioactive marker. This radioactive label serves as a marker that allows the fragments to be visualized later in the sequencing process. Following the labeling, the DNA fragment is purified to remove any impurities or contaminants that might interfere with the sequencing reaction.
  • Once the DNA fragment is prepared, it undergoes a series of chemical treatments that induce breaks in the DNA molecule at specific nucleotide positions. These breaks occur at a small proportion of one or two of the four nucleotide bases (Guanine, Adenine, Cytosine, and Thymine) in each of the four reactions. The chemical reactions are designed to target specific bases and cleave the DNA molecule, resulting in a series of labeled fragments.
  • The labeled fragments generated from the chemical reactions are then separated by size using a technique called gel electrophoresis. Gel electrophoresis involves placing the DNA fragments in a gel matrix and applying an electric field to move the fragments through the gel. The smaller fragments move more quickly through the gel, while the larger fragments move more slowly. This separation by size allows the fragments to be arranged side by side in the gel.
  • To visualize the fragments and determine their sequence, the gel is exposed to an X-ray film for autoradiography. The radioactive labels on the DNA fragments cause the film to darken in specific regions, creating a series of dark bands on the film. Each dark band corresponds to a radiolabeled DNA fragment with a specific sequence. By analyzing the positions of the bands on the film, scientists can infer the sequence of nucleotides in the original DNA fragment.
  • The Maxam-Gilbert method played a significant role in advancing DNA sequencing technology and was one of the first methods used to determine the sequence of DNA molecules. Although newer sequencing methods, such as Sanger sequencing and more recently, high-throughput sequencing technologies like next-generation sequencing, have largely replaced the Maxam-Gilbert method, it remains an important milestone in the history of DNA sequencing.

Key Features of Chemical Cleavage Method

The Chemical Cleavage Method, also known as the Maxam-Gilbert method, is a DNA sequencing technique that involves base-specific cleavage of DNA using specific chemicals. Here are some key features of this method:

  1. Base-specific cleavage: The Chemical Cleavage Method targets the specific bases within the DNA molecule for cleavage. Different chemicals are used to induce breaks at specific nucleotide positions. By selectively cleaving the DNA at specific bases, the method allows for the determination of the nucleotide sequence.
  2. Four different chemicals: The Chemical Cleavage Method utilizes four different chemicals, with each chemical targeting a specific base in the DNA molecule. These chemicals are designed to cause breaks at the targeted bases, resulting in DNA fragments with defined endpoints.
  3. Set of DNA fragments: As a result of the chemical cleavage, a set of DNA fragments is generated. These fragments vary in size and represent different regions of the original DNA molecule. The fragments range from relatively small to larger sizes, providing information about the sequence of nucleotides in the original DNA fragment.
  4. DNA fragments containing up to 500 nucleotides: The Chemical Cleavage Method allows for the sequencing of DNA fragments containing up to 500 nucleotides. This range of fragment sizes enables the determination of the nucleotide sequence for a substantial portion of the DNA molecule being sequenced.

Advantages of Chemical Cleavage Method

The Chemical Cleavage Method, also known as the Maxam-Gilbert method, offers several advantages for DNA sequencing and analysis. Here are some key advantages of this method:

  1. Direct reading of purified DNA: One of the notable advantages of the Chemical Cleavage Method is that it allows for the direct reading of purified DNA fragments. After the DNA is chemically treated and cleaved, the resulting fragments can be separated by gel electrophoresis and visualized using autoradiography. This direct reading of purified DNA fragments simplifies the sequencing process and facilitates the analysis of the nucleotide sequence.
  2. Efficient sequencing of homopolymeric DNA runs: Homopolymeric DNA sequences, where a single nucleotide is repeated consecutively multiple times, can pose challenges in DNA sequencing. However, the Chemical Cleavage Method overcomes this hurdle by sequencing homopolymeric runs as efficiently as heterogeneous DNA sequences. This capability ensures accurate and reliable sequencing results, regardless of the presence of repetitive nucleotides.
  3. Analysis of DNA-protein interactions (footprinting): The Chemical Cleavage Method is not limited to DNA sequencing alone. It can also be used to analyze DNA-protein interactions, a process commonly referred to as DNA footprinting. By using specific DNA-binding proteins, researchers can identify regions of DNA that are protected from chemical cleavage due to protein binding. This technique provides valuable insights into protein-DNA interactions, such as binding sites and protein-induced structural changes in DNA.
  4. Analysis of nucleic acid structure and epigenetic modifications: In addition to DNA sequencing and protein interaction analysis, the Chemical Cleavage Method is also useful for studying nucleic acid structure and epigenetic modifications. The chemical cleavage patterns can provide information about the structural properties of DNA or RNA molecules, such as secondary structures and folding patterns. Moreover, the method can detect specific chemical modifications, such as DNA methylation, which plays a crucial role in epigenetic regulation.

The advantages of the Chemical Cleavage Method make it a versatile tool for DNA analysis beyond sequencing. Its ability to directly read purified DNA, efficient sequencing of homopolymeric DNA runs, analysis of DNA-protein interactions, and assessment of nucleic acid structure and epigenetic modifications contribute to its importance in various fields of molecular biology and biochemistry.

Disadvantages of Chemical Cleavage Method

While the Chemical Cleavage Method (Maxam-Gilbert method) has several advantages, it also comes with some limitations and disadvantages. Here are some of the key drawbacks associated with this sequencing technique:

  1. Use of hazardous chemicals: The Chemical Cleavage Method involves the use of hazardous chemicals, including strong acids and toxic reagents. These chemicals pose potential risks to researchers’ safety and require strict adherence to safety protocols. Handling and disposing of these chemicals properly can add complexity and additional precautions to the experimental setup.
  2. Technical complexity: Implementing the Chemical Cleavage Method requires a relatively complex setup and technical expertise. The process involves multiple steps, including DNA labeling, purification, chemical treatments, gel electrophoresis, and autoradiography. Each step requires precision and careful execution to obtain accurate results. The technical complexity may limit the accessibility of the method to researchers without specialized training or resources.
  3. Limited scalability: The Chemical Cleavage Method is not easily scalable and has inherent limitations in terms of the length of DNA fragments that can be analyzed. It is primarily suitable for analyzing DNA fragments of up to 500 base pairs. As a result, it may not be suitable for sequencing larger DNA molecules or complex genomes, where longer read lengths are required.
  4. Decreased read length: Incomplete cleavage reactions can lead to a decrease in the read length of the sequenced fragments. If the chemical cleavage reactions are not fully efficient, some fragments may remain intact, resulting in incomplete sequence information. This limitation can impact the accuracy and reliability of the sequencing results, especially for regions where cleavage is incomplete.
  5. Difficulty in developing Maxam-Gilbert sequencing kits: The Chemical Cleavage Method’s technical complexity and reliance on hazardous chemicals make it challenging to develop standardized kits for widespread use. Unlike other sequencing methods that have been commercialized into kits, such as Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing technologies, it is difficult to create ready-to-use Maxam-Gilbert sequencing kits. This limitation restricts the availability and accessibility of the method.

While the Chemical Cleavage Method played a significant role in the early days of DNA sequencing, its disadvantages have led to the development and adoption of alternative techniques that overcome these limitations. Newer sequencing methods, such as Sanger sequencing and next-generation sequencing technologies, have emerged as more efficient, scalable, and user-friendly alternatives to the Chemical Cleavage Method.

Chain Termination Method (Sanger Dideoxy Method)

The Chain Termination Method, also known as the Sanger dideoxy method, is a widely used DNA sequencing technique. It offers several advantages over the Maxam-Gilbert method, including increased efficiency, reduced use of toxic chemicals, and lower amounts of radioactivity. Here are the key features and steps involved in the Sanger dideoxy method:

  1. Use of dideoxynucleotide triphosphates (ddNTPs) as chain terminators: The Sanger method relies on the incorporation of dideoxynucleotide triphosphates (ddNTPs) during DNA synthesis. These ddNTPs lack a 3′-OH group required for the formation of a phosphodiester bond between nucleotides. As a result, when a ddNTP is incorporated into the growing DNA chain, it terminates further elongation.
  2. Reaction setup: The chain termination method requires a single-stranded DNA template, a DNA primer, a DNA polymerase enzyme, radioactively or fluorescently labeled nucleotides, and modified nucleotides (ddNTPs) that act as chain terminators. The DNA sample is divided into four separate sequencing reactions, each containing all four standard deoxynucleotides (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, dTTP) and one of the four ddNTPs.
  3. DNA synthesis and termination: The DNA polymerase extends the DNA chain by incorporating nucleotides complementary to the template strand. However, when a ddNTP is encountered, DNA synthesis is terminated, resulting in DNA fragments of varying lengths.
  4. Gel electrophoresis: The newly synthesized and labeled DNA fragments are separated by size using gel electrophoresis. Typically, denaturing polyacrylamide-urea gels are used to separate the fragments. Each of the four reactions is run in a separate lane (A, T, G, C). The DNA fragments move through the gel based on their size, with smaller fragments traveling faster than longer ones.
  5. Visualization and reading the sequence: After gel electrophoresis, the DNA fragments are visualized using autoradiography or UV light. A dark band in a lane indicates a DNA fragment that resulted from chain termination after the incorporation of a ddNTP. The relative positions of the bands in the four lanes are then used to read the DNA sequence, with the sequence being read from the bottom to the top of the gel.
  6. Technical variations: The Sanger method offers technical variations for labeling the DNA fragments. These variations include labeling with nucleotides containing radioactive phosphorus for autoradiography or using a primer labeled at the 5′ end with a fluorescent dye. The latter, known as dye-primer sequencing, enables faster and more economical analysis through an optical system.

The Chain Termination Method, or Sanger dideoxy method, revolutionized DNA sequencing and played a pivotal role in many significant scientific discoveries. Its efficiency, flexibility, and compatibility with different labeling techniques have made it a widely adopted and valuable tool in molecular biology, genetics, and genomics.

Key Features of Chain Termination Method

The Chain Termination Method, also known as the Sanger dideoxy method, is a DNA sequencing technique that incorporates several key features. Here are the main characteristics of this method:

  • Use of dideoxy nucleotides: The Chain Termination Method utilizes dideoxy nucleotides, also known as ddNTPs, as chain terminators. These ddNTPs lack a 3′-OH group necessary for the formation of phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides during DNA synthesis. As a result, when a ddNTP is incorporated into the growing DNA chain, it terminates further elongation.
  • DNA synthesis reactions in separate tubes: The method involves conducting DNA synthesis reactions in four separate tubes, each containing a DNA template, a DNA primer, DNA polymerase, standard deoxynucleotides (dNTPs: dATP, dGTP, dCTP, dTTP), and one of the four ddNTPs (ddATP, ddGTP, ddCTP, ddTTP). These separate reactions enable the incorporation of the terminating ddNTPs at specific positions along the DNA template.
  • Inclusion of radioactive dATP: In all four reactions, radioactive dATP is included along with the non-radioactive dNTPs. This incorporation of radioactive dATP ensures that the resulting DNA products are radioactive, facilitating their detection and analysis.
  • Generation of DNA fragments: The incorporation of ddNTPs during DNA synthesis results in the generation of a series of DNA fragments of varying lengths. The termination occurs at different positions along the DNA template, determined by the specific ddNTP incorporated in each reaction. These fragments represent different lengths of the original DNA template.
  • Size measurement by electrophoresis: To determine the sizes of the DNA fragments, gel electrophoresis is performed. The DNA fragments are separated based on their length as they migrate through a gel matrix under an electric field. Smaller fragments move faster than longer ones, resulting in a series of bands representing different fragment sizes.
  • Knowledge of the last base: As each DNA fragment terminates with a ddNTP, the last base in each fragment is known and corresponds to the ddNTP incorporated in the respective reaction. This knowledge enables the determination of the nucleotide sequence, as the order of the fragments from shortest to longest provides the sequence information.

The Chain Termination Method, with its use of ddNTPs, separate DNA synthesis reactions, inclusion of radioactive dATP, gel electrophoresis, and knowledge of the last base in each fragment, revolutionized DNA sequencing. This method laid the foundation for subsequent developments in DNA sequencing technologies and played a crucial role in advancing our understanding of genetic information.

Advantage of Chain Termination Method

The Chain Termination Method, also known as the Sanger dideoxy method, offers several advantages that have significantly simplified DNA sequencing. Here are some key advantages of this method:

  • Simplicity: The Chain Termination Method is relatively straightforward and easy to implement compared to other sequencing techniques. It involves conducting DNA synthesis reactions in separate tubes, incorporating dideoxy nucleotides (ddNTPs) as chain terminators. The process of synthesizing labeled DNA fragments and separating them by gel electrophoresis is well-established and can be easily performed in a laboratory setting.
  • Single-stranded template: The method utilizes a single-stranded DNA template, which simplifies the experimental setup. Single-stranded templates are readily available through methods such as PCR amplification or the use of bacteriophage templates. This simplification reduces the complexity of DNA sample preparation and makes the technique more accessible to researchers.
  • Versatility: The Chain Termination Method can be applied to a wide range of DNA sequencing applications. It is suitable for sequencing both short and long DNA fragments, making it adaptable to various experimental needs. The ability to obtain DNA sequence information from different fragments has been instrumental in numerous genetic and genomic studies.
  • Readability: The sequencing results obtained through the Chain Termination Method are highly readable and interpretable. By incorporating fluorescent or radioactive labels into the DNA fragments, the sequence can be easily visualized and analyzed. This simplicity in visualizing the sequencing results enables researchers to extract valuable information from the data with relative ease.
  • Historical significance: The development of the Chain Termination Method represented a major breakthrough in DNA sequencing. This pioneering technique laid the foundation for subsequent advancements in sequencing technologies. It not only simplified the sequencing process but also paved the way for the development of automated sequencing instruments and the emergence of next-generation sequencing techniques.

Limitations of Chain Termination Method

While the Chain Termination Method (Sanger dideoxy method) has revolutionized DNA sequencing, it also has some limitations that should be considered. Here are two key limitations of this method:

  • Non-specific primer binding: One limitation of the Chain Termination Method is the potential for non-specific binding of the primer to the DNA template. The primer is designed to anneal to a specific region of the DNA template to initiate DNA synthesis. However, there is a possibility of unintended binding to regions with similar sequence motifs elsewhere in the genome. This non-specific binding can result in erroneous or ambiguous sequencing results, leading to difficulties in accurately reading the DNA sequence.
  • DNA secondary structures: DNA molecules can form secondary structures, such as hairpins or stem-loop structures, due to complementary base pairing within the same molecule. These secondary structures can hinder the movement of the DNA polymerase along the template strand or impede the binding of primers, affecting the fidelity of DNA synthesis during the sequencing reaction. As a result, regions of DNA with complex secondary structures may not be sequenced accurately or may present challenges in obtaining reliable sequence information.

To mitigate these limitations, researchers often employ strategies such as careful primer design, optimization of reaction conditions, and sequence confirmation through multiple sequencing reads or alternative sequencing methods. Additionally, advancements in DNA sequencing technologies, such as next-generation sequencing platforms, have emerged to overcome some of the limitations of the Chain Termination Method and provide higher-throughput sequencing with improved accuracy.

Despite these limitations, the Chain Termination Method remains a foundational technique in DNA sequencing and has contributed significantly to our understanding of genetic information. Many of the challenges associated with this method have been addressed through further developments and advancements in sequencing technologies.

Significance/Applications of DNA Sequencing

DNA sequencing is a powerful tool with broad significance and diverse applications in various fields of biological research. Here are some key aspects highlighting the significance and applications of DNA sequencing:

  • Understanding gene function: DNA sequencing plays a pivotal role in understanding the function of genes. By determining the precise sequence of DNA, researchers can identify the coding regions that produce proteins, as well as regulatory regions that control gene expression. This information is crucial for elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying biological processes and diseases.
  • Genetic variation and mutation analysis: DNA sequence analysis enables the identification of genetic variations and mutations within the genome. It helps in pinpointing specific regions of the DNA that are susceptible to mutations and can contribute to the development of diseases. Additionally, studying genetic variation through DNA sequencing allows researchers to investigate population genetics, evolution, and inheritance patterns.
  • Classification and evolutionary relationships: DNA sequencing provides insights into evolutionary relationships among different organisms. By comparing DNA sequences across species, scientists can establish a framework for classifying microorganisms, including viruses. This information aids in understanding their evolutionary history and provides valuable insights into their biological characteristics.
  • Diagnostic and clinical applications: DNA sequencing has become faster and more affordable, allowing for routine laboratory determination of microbial sequences. Sequencing the 16S ribosomal subunit can identify specific bacteria, helping with diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. Similarly, sequencing viral genomes aids in identifying specific viruses and distinguishing different strains, enabling effective surveillance and control measures.
  • Structural insights: DNA sequencing reveals the structure of genes, aiding researchers in understanding the composition and organization of genetic material. This information helps in predicting the structure and function of gene products, such as proteins and non-coding RNAs. It also facilitates studies on gene expression, regulation, and the impact of genetic variations on protein structure and function.

FAQ

What is DNA sequencing?

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) in a DNA molecule.

Why is DNA sequencing important?

DNA sequencing is crucial for understanding genetic information, studying gene function, identifying genetic variations, tracing evolutionary relationships, diagnosing diseases, and developing personalized medicine.

How does DNA sequencing work?

DNA sequencing methods involve fragmenting the DNA, amplifying it through PCR, sequencing the fragments, and then aligning and assembling the resulting sequences to reconstruct the full DNA sequence.

What are the different DNA sequencing technologies?

There are several DNA sequencing technologies, including Sanger sequencing (chain termination method), next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques such as Illumina sequencing, and third-generation sequencing technologies like PacBio and Oxford Nanopore sequencing.

What is the cost of DNA sequencing?

The cost of DNA sequencing has significantly decreased over the years due to technological advancements. Currently, it can range from a few dollars to a few thousand dollars per sample, depending on the sequencing method and the scale of the project.

How long does DNA sequencing take?

The time required for DNA sequencing depends on the technology used and the size of the project. Traditional Sanger sequencing can take a few hours to a few days, while NGS methods can generate results in a matter of hours to a few days, depending on the specific platform and sample throughput.

Can DNA sequencing identify genetic variations?

Yes, DNA sequencing can identify genetic variations, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions, deletions, and structural variations. These variations can provide insights into disease susceptibility, drug responses, and population genetics.

Can DNA sequencing be used for clinical diagnostics?

Yes, DNA sequencing is increasingly used in clinical diagnostics for identifying genetic diseases, determining the genetic basis of disorders, and guiding personalized treatments. It can also aid in detecting infectious agents and monitoring cancer mutations.

What is whole-genome sequencing?

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is a comprehensive approach that involves sequencing the complete DNA sequence of an organism’s genome. It provides a detailed map of an individual’s genetic makeup and can identify genetic variations throughout the entire genome.

Can DNA sequencing be used for ancient DNA or forensic analysis?

Yes, DNA sequencing has been instrumental in studying ancient DNA for understanding human evolution, population migrations, and extinct species. In forensic analysis, DNA sequencing is employed to identify individuals, establish relationships, and provide evidence in criminal investigations.

References

  • DNA Sequencing. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21119/
  • Sanger, F., Nicklen, S., & Coulson, A. R. (1977). DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 74(12), 5463-5467.
  • Mardis, E. R. (2008). Next-generation DNA sequencing methods. Annual review of genomics and human genetics, 9, 387-402.
  • Robins, H. S., Campregher, P. V., Srivastava, S. K., Wacher, A., Turtle, C. J., Kahsai, O., … & Warren, E. H. (2009). Comprehensive assessment of T-cell receptor beta-chain diversity in alphabeta T cells. Blood, 114(19), 4099-4107.
  • Roychowdhury, S., Chinnaiyan, A. M., & Translational PDX-Development Team. (2016). Advancing precision medicine for patient-centric cancer therapy. Cancer cell, 29(4), 451-456.
  • Maxam, A. M., & Gilbert, W. (1977). A new method for sequencing DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 74(2), 560-564.

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