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Sludge Wastes Treatment – Methods, Types, Factors, Uses

Sludge Wastes Treatment - Methods, Types, Factors, Uses

What is Sludge? Objectives of Treating Sludge 1. Reducing its Volume 2. Stabilizing its Organic Materials 3. Kill off the odor 4. To Ensure it Can be Safely Used 5. Pathogen Inactivation 6. Dewatering 7. The alternative (incineration and landfill disposal) are Not Environmentally Friendly Sources of Sludge Wastes  The following unit operations are the … Read more

Composting – Methods, Types, Factors, Importance

Composting - Methods, Types, Factors, Importance

What is Composting? Important ingredients required for function of Microorganisms Mechanism of Composting Organisms can decompose organic materials in compost if the proper mixture of water, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen is present. There are two basic groups of decomposers: chemical decomposers, which execute chemical processes on organic waste, and physical decomposers, which reduce trash to … Read more

Solid Waste Management

Solid Waste Management

What is Solid Waste Management? Management of solid waste is the collection, treatment, and disposal of solid material that has served its purpose or is no longer useful. Improper disposal of municipal solid waste can result in unsanitary circumstances, which in turn can lead to environmental contamination and outbreaks of vector-borne diseases, which are transmitted … Read more

Oxidation Pond – Definition, Mechanisms

Oxidation Pond - Definition, Mechanisms

What is Oxidation Pond? Mechanism of Waste Treatment Understanding the following processes will facilitate comprehension of the oxidation pond’s mechanism or operation. Based on the two mechanisms described above, it is evident that algae and bacteria fulfil one other’s needs. The bacteria oxidise the biodegradable organics with the oxygen generated by the algae. The bacterial … Read more

Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) – Definition, Importance, Measurement

Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) Definition, Importance, Measurement

Biological oxygen demand refers to the amount of oxygen required by bacteria and other microorganisms to decompose organic matter under aerobic (oxygen present) conditions at a certain temperature (BOD). The greater the concentration of organic contaminants in the water, the greater the oxygen demand of the bacteria. Consequently, the level of contamination in a body … Read more

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) – Definition, Measurement, Uses

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) - Definition, Measurement, Uses

Chemical oxygen demand, or COD, indicates the amount of oxygen that can be used by processes in a measured solution. It is often expressed as the mass of oxygen utilised per unit of solution volume, or milligrammes per litre (mg/L) in SI units. The most common application of COD is determining the quantity of oxidizable … Read more

Degradation of Hydrocarbons (oil spills)

Degradation of Hydrocarbons (oil spills)

Types of Hydrocarbon Crude petroleum HCs can be categorised as alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, polycyclic aromatics, asphaltines, and resins. Alkanes Cycloalkanes  Aromatic HCs Polycyclic aromatic HC Asphaltines and resins Effects of Hydrocarbon The ecological and/or economic effects of direct or indirect exposure of live creatures to hydrocarbon molecules can vary. Principles of Bioremediation Oil Spill Cleaning … Read more

Liquid Waste Management

Liquid Waste Management

Fluid wastes consisting of sewage and residential wastewater, or treated water or other liquids, generated by industrial operations, particularly in the pulp and paper industry, the food processing industry, and the chemical manufacturing industry. What is Liquid Waste Management? Characteristics of Sewage/Liquid Waste In sewage, the death of oxygen-dependent organisms such as aerobic microbes, plants, … Read more

Sewage Treatment – Wastewater Treatment Procedure

Sewage Treatment - Wastewater Treatment Procedure

Wastewater treatment or Sewage Treatment  Characteristics of Wastewater  Chemical Characteristics  Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Microbiological Character Wastewater Treatment Process Diverse wastewater treatment technologies exist. We shall explain the treatment methods as they pertain to two distinct circumstances: (1) a single home or unit structure, and (2) a community or municipality. 1. Single Dwelling Unit Anaerobic … Read more

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