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Radial Immunodiffusion – Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Radial Immunodiffusion Principle, Procedure, Result

Single Radial Immunodiffusion also referred to as Mancini technique is a quantitative immunodiffusion technique that is used to measure the antigen’s concentration by measuring the size of the precipitin-based ring created by the interaction between the antigen with the antibody at the optimal concentration. The antibody is embedded in the agarose gel, while the antigen is diffused into it in the form of a radiatal pattern.

Latex agglutination test – Definition, Procedure, Principle, Advantages, Limitation, Uses

latex agglutination test

What is the latex agglutination test? Types of Latex Agglutination The latex agglutination test can be categorized into two main types based on the processes of detection: Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) for Antibody Detection and Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) for Antigen Detection. These two types of latex agglutination tests provide valuable diagnostic information in different … Read more

Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test – Principle, Procedure, Result, Applications

Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test - Principle, Procedure, Result, Applications

What is Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test? Principle of Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test The principle of the Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) test is based on the detection of antibodies produced in response to antigens released by damaged host cells during a syphilis infection. The RPR test is a macroscopic, non-treponemal flocculation card test that … Read more

Mantoux Test – Procedure, Normal Range and Result Interpretation

Mantoux Test - Procedure, Normal Range and Result Interpretation

What is Mantoux Test? Principle of Mantoux Test The Mantoux test operates on the principle of delayed-type hypersensitivity, specifically Type IV hypersensitivity. This test is designed to assess a person’s cell-mediated immunity against the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To conduct this test, a substance known as Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) is used, which is essentially a … Read more

Types of Immunoelectrophoresis 

Types of Immunoelectrophoresis 

What is Immunoelectrophoresis? Types of Immunoelectrophoresis There are 4 types of Immunoelectrophoresis; 1. Classical immunoelectrophoresis Advantages In summary, classical immunoelectrophoresis offers the advantages of separating complex mixtures, identifying individual components, specificity in immunoprecipitation reactions, simplicity in procedure, and providing visual and informative results. 2. Counter Current Immunoelectrophoresis Counter current immunoelectrophoresis, also known as crossover immunoelectrophoresis, utilizes … Read more

Thick and Thin Blood Smear for Malaria Diagnosis

Thick and Thin Blood Smear for Malaria Diagnosis

A blood film or Peripheral blood smear (PBS) must be prepared from capillary blood or a drop of blood from an EDTA (anticoagulant) blood sample. Blood examination under the microscope requires blood smears. The Differential Leukocyte Count (DLC) is typically determined by blood smears. The DLC entails counting 100 white blood cells (WBCs) and noting … Read more

Neutralization Test – Definition, Principle, Types, Procedure, Results, Applications

Neutralization Test

What is Neutralization Test? Principle of Neutralization  The neutralization principle is based on the understanding that certain antibodies or antitoxins can reduce or neutralize the various biological effects caused by enzymes, toxins, and viruses. There are two main types of neutralization tests: In both types of neutralization tests, the goal is to assess the ability … Read more

Ouchterlony Double Immunodiffusion Method

Ouchterlony Double Immunodiffusion Method

Classification of Immunodiffusion  The process of immuno-diffusion allows the determination or detection of antigens and antibodies through their precipitation that involves diffusion through a substance, such as gel agarose or agar. Simply, it denotes precipitation in a gel. It’s one of the many methods to create a precipitate from an antibody and a specific antigen. … Read more

Complement Fixation Test – Principle, Types, Procedure, Results, Applications

Complement Fixation Test - Principle, Types, Procedure, Results, Applications

What is Complement Fixation? Principle of Complement Fixation Test The principle of the complement fixation test is based on the interaction between antigens, antibodies, and complement proteins. When an antigen and antibody come into contact, they form an antigen-antibody (Ag-Ab) complex. This complex then interacts with complement proteins and becomes fixed with them. As a … Read more

Detect the presence of specific antibody and quantitate the amount of antibody in patient’s serum

Detect the presence of specific antibody and quantitate the amount of antibody in patient’s serum

Such is the case with the slide and tube Widal test. The agglutinins against the ‘0’ (somatic) and ‘H’ (flagellar) antigens of Salmonella typhi, paratyphi A, and paratyphi B are measured qualitatively (slide test) and quantitatively (Tube test) using a suspension of suitable organisms that have been killed. Widal-quantitative tube agglutination test This test aids … Read more

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