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Vertebra – Definition, Structure, Development

Vertebra - Definition, Structure, Development, Types

What is Vertebra? Definition of Vertebra A vertebra is an individual bone that forms part of the vertebral column (spine) in vertebrate animals. It is an irregularly shaped bone composed of a central body, a vertebral arch, and various processes, providing structural support, flexibility, and protection for the spinal cord. Parts of Vertebrae 1. Vertebral … Read more

Vertebrata – Definition, Classification, Characteristics, Features

Vertebrata – Definition, Classification, Characteristics, Features

Evolution of Vertebrata Vertebrata  Vertebrates, also known as Craniata or Osseo Batch, are animal species characterized by the presence of a backbone or vertebrae. They belong to the Subphylum Vertebrata within the Kingdom Animalia, which encompasses the broader group of chordates with a backbone. Vertebrates are part of the clade Olfactories, which is a monophyletic … Read more

Integument In Vertebrates – Structure, Functions and Derivatives.

Integument In Vertebrates - Structure, Functions and Derivatives.

What is Integument? The integument refers to the outermost covering of the body in animals, which includes the skin and its associated structures. The skin is the largest organ of the body and serves as a protective barrier between the internal organs and the external environment. In addition to the skin, the integument includes other … Read more

Jaw Suspension In Vertebrates

Jaw Suspension In Vertebrates

Jaw suspension in vertebrates refers to the way the lower jaw is attached to the upper jaw or the skull, enabling efficient biting and chewing. This attachment is achieved through modifications in the visceral arches, which are part of the splanchnocranium in the vertebrate skull. The vertebrate skull is composed of three major parts: the … Read more

What is Visceral Arches?


What is Visceral Arches? Evolution of Visceral Arches Cyclostomes Elasmobranchs Bony fishes Amphibia Reptiles Birds Mammals Mammals, a diverse group of warm-blooded vertebrates, exhibit specific modifications in their skull, ear ossicles, and laryngeal structures that are distinct from other vertebrate groups. In mammals, the pterygoquadrate bone breaks into two parts: the alisphenoid, which becomes part … Read more

Respiratory System of Vertebrata – Skin, Gills, Lungs and Air Sacs

Respiratory System of Vertebrata - Skin, Gills, Lungs and Air Sacs

What is Respiratory System? The respiratory system is a complex network of organs and tissues in living organisms that is responsible for the exchange of gases, primarily oxygen and carbon dioxide, between the organism and its environment. It plays a crucial role in facilitating the intake of oxygen required for cellular respiration and eliminating carbon … Read more

Circulatory System in Vertebrates – Components, Structure, Functions

Circulatory System in Vertebrates - Components, Structure, Functions

The circulatory system is a vital component of vertebrates, consisting of two interconnected systems: the blood vascular system and the lymphatic system. While both systems play crucial roles in maintaining the body’s overall function, the circulatory system primarily refers to the blood vascular system. In vertebrates, the blood vascular system is a closed system characterized … Read more

Nervous System of Frog

Nervous System of Frog

The nervous system of a frog is a complex structure that controls and coordinates the various functions and activities of the frog’s body. It can be broadly divided into two main parts: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The nervous system of the frog is adapted for its amphibious lifestyle. … Read more

Respiratory System of Frog

Respiratory System of Frog

The respiratory system of a frog is quite interesting because frogs have multiple ways to exchange gases with their environment. Here’s a brief overview: It’s important to note that while frogs have lungs, they rely heavily on their skin for gas exchange, especially when they are in water. This dual mode of respiration allows them … Read more

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