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Microbial interaction – Definition, Types, Characteristics, Examples

Microbial interaction - Definition, Types, Characteristics, Examples

Microbial interaction is a biological interaction in which the effect of microorganisms on other biotic components of an ecosystem can be investigated. Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, and microbial ecology is the study of microbial interactions within an ecosystem. Positive and negative microbial interactions are possible, and microbes can affect (positively or negatively) other … Read more

Host Pathogen Interaction

Host Pathogen Interaction

Host Pathogen Interaction What is Infection? Types of Infection Infectious agents (pathogens) that cause infections include: What is Invasion? A Survey of Bacterial Invasins Spreading Factors Enzymes that Cause Hemolysis and/or Leucolysis Typically, these enzymes act on the animal cell membrane by inserting into it (creating a pore that leads to cell lysis) or by … Read more

Mycorrhiza – Definition, Types, Examples, Importance

Mycorrhiza - Definition, Types, Examples, Importance

What is Mycorrhiza? Definition of Mycorrhiza Mycorrhiza refers to the symbiotic association between specific fungi and plant roots, where the fungus aids in nutrient and water uptake for the plant, and in return, the plant provides the fungus with essential nutrients produced through photosynthesis. Types of Mycorrhizae Mycorrhizas are often classified as either ectomycorrhizas or … Read more

Microbe-Plant interaction – Types, Examples

Microbe-Plant interaction - Types, Examples

Microbe-Plant interaction Plants are immobile, but they are continuously subjected to both biotic and abiotic stress. Constant warfare exists between harmful microorganisms and the host plant, with the outcome determining resistance or disease. Plants exude a variety of organic substances, resulting in a nutrient-rich environment that is conducive to microbial growth. Therefore, plants are highly … Read more

Nodulation – Steps, Structure, Functions

Nodulation - Steps, Structure, Functions

What is Nodule? Root Nodule Types In legumes, two major forms of nodules have been identified: determinate and indeterminate. Determinate nodules Indeterminate nodules Symbiosis Leguminous family Non-leguminous Root Nodule Formation Steps – Nodulation Briefly Describe When the soil contains a low concentration of nitrogen, root nodule development begins. The two symbiotic partners rely on cell … Read more

Microbe-Microbe Interactions

Microbe-Microbe Interactions

Various sorts of positive and negative interactions between microorganisms and plants/animals have been described previously. Similar to humans, microorganisms communicate with one another and result in both beneficial and detrimental connections. In this context, the following interactions and interrelationships have been discussed: 1. Symbiosis between Alga and Fungus (Lichens) Classification Based on the nature of … Read more

Mutualism – Definition, Types, Examples

Mutualism - Definition, Types, Examples

What is Mutualism? Mutualism is simply a partnership between two animals that benefits both. This link may exist either inside the species or between species. The organisms involved in this connection are known as symbionts. All living species, including humans, animals, birds, plants, and microbes such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi, exhibit interdependence. Mutualism resembles … Read more

Commensalism – Definition, Types, Example

Commensalism - Definition, Types, Example

What is Commensalism? Along with mutualism, the term was coined in 1876 by Belgian palaeontologist and naturalist Pierre-Joseph van Beneden. Beneden first used the term to describe the behaviour of carrion-eating animals that followed predators in order to consume their leftover meal. The term commensalism is derived from the Latin word commensalis, which meaning “table … Read more

Predation – Definition, Types, Examples

Predation - Definition, Types, Examples

What is Predation? – Predation Definition Characteristics of Predators 1. Physical adaptations 2. Diet and behaviour 3. Camouflage and mimicry 4. Venom 5. Electric fields 6. Physiology Types of Predators Predation comes in four main forms: 1. Carnivory Example of Carnivorous Predation 2. Herbivory Example of Herbivorous Predation 3. Parasitism Examples of Parasitic Predation 4. … Read more

Symbiosis – Definition, Types, Examples

Symbiosis Relationship- Definition, Types, Examples

What is Symbiosis? Symbiosis, derived from the Greek words “σύν” (sýn) meaning “together” and “βίωσις” (bíōsis) signifying “living,” refers to a prolonged biological interaction between two distinct species, known as symbionts. This interaction can manifest in various forms, ranging from mutualistic, where both entities benefit, to commensalistic, where one benefits without harming the other, and … Read more

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