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Northern Blotting – Protocol, Principle, Application, Result

Northern Blot Protocol, Principle, Application, Result

Northern blotting or Northern hybridization is a widely used technique in molecular biology to determine the molecular weight of mRNA and to measure relative amounts of mRNA present in different samples and for identifying alternatively spliced transcripts and multigene family members.

Real Time PCR (RT-PCR) – Definition, Principle, Protocol, Application, Advantages

Real-Time PCR Principle, Protocol, Application, Advantages.

A real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) is a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based laboratory technique used in molecular biology for real-time monitoring of the amplification of a targeted DNA molecule during the PCR, not at its end, as the conventional PCR do.

Giemsa Stain – Preparation, Procedure, Principle, Composition and Application

Giemsa Stain: Staining Procedure, Principle, Result and Application

The term Giemsa stain originated from a name of German chemist and bacteriologist Gustav Giemsa. He apply this stain with a combination of reagents to detect the presence of malaria parasites. This stain is used for nucleic acid staining and histopathological diagnosis of malaria and other parasites. Giemsa Stain is a types of Romanowsky stains … Read more

Nuclear Staining by Giemsa stain – Procedure, Principle, Result

Nuclear Staining by Giemsa stain: Procedure, Principle, Result

Bacterial cells contain nuclear material, made of single-stranded circular DNA, in contrast to eukaryotes. This genetic material is present within the membrane-bounded structure known as the nucleus. In case of prokaryotes the nuclear material is present within the nucleoid which lacks the nuclear membrane and does not follow the mitosis or miosis cell division. Some … Read more

Cell Membrane Staining Procedure, Principle, Result


The cell membrane is a biological membrane which also termed a plasma membrane (PM) or cytoplasmic membrane. It divides the interior of the cell from the outside environment, thus protects the cell from environmental stress. The cell membrane is a lipid bilayer, contains cholesterols between phospholipids which maintain their fluidity at various temperatures. The membrane … Read more

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