Many physicians and medical specialist regarding the controversial physician Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard to be the “Father of Endocrinology“. 

harles-Édouard Brown-Séquard was born on April 8, 1817, in Port Louis, Mauritius.

He studied medicine in Paris and later became a prominent physiologist and neurologist.

In 1856, Brown-Séquard conducted experiments where he observed the detrimental effects of adrenal gland removal in animals. This led him to investigate the functions of adrenal extracts.

He is often credited as one of the pioneers of endocrinology for his early investigations into hormonal functions and effects.

One of Brown-Séquard's most controversial experiments involved injecting himself with an extract derived from crushed testicles of guinea pigs and dogs. He claimed rejuvenating effects, but this experiment was criticized by his contemporaries.

Despite his contributions, Brown-Séquard's work was initially met with skepticism and labeled as pseudoscience. The field of endocrinology only gained credibility later, especially with the discovery of insulin in 1921.

His experiments and theories laid the groundwork for later advancements in understanding hormones and their impact on health and disease.

Brown-Séquard held academic positions in both France and the United States, where he continued his research and teaching in physiology.

He authored numerous papers and books, contributing significantly to the scientific understanding of neurological and endocrine functions.

Despite controversies surrounding some of his experiments, Brown-Séquard's pioneering efforts in endocrinology paved the way for the establishment of endocrinology as a legitimate scientific discipline.